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3 tablespoons vodka
1 1/2 tablespoons dry vermouth
1 1/2 tablespoons Campari
Fill cocktail shaker with ice. Add vodka, vermouth, and Campari; shake well. Strain into a Martini glass.
Recipe by Hugh Garvey
Photos by Pornchai Mittongtare
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1960s 1960 Recipes
- Anno 1960
A beautiful, crisper spin on the Negroni.
Oh, my, word!! My Mother made these when I was just a little girl. And I .
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Old recipe, but so good, from the late '60's. Updated with Healthy Reque .
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This was a very old recipe I got and updated it a bit for 2007. It's just .
From a recipe collection of Fleishman's yeast , I still make these tender .
MyRecipes recommends that you make this 1960s Swedish Meatballs recipe from .
Put together all ingredients and beat with mixer for 4 min. If batter is to .
Love the oldie but goodie recipes
Years ago, "hash" was very popular. It was made from leftover roa .
So easy, so simple. Really, really good! Chicken pieces are coated with .
Recipes, cooking techniques, and news, updated daily. Chow.com - devoted to .
Recipe from 1960. Does anybody remember? A baking potato is cored like an .
Dilly casserole bread (1960) appetizers, vegetables
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Swedish Meatballs From 1960's
Anno 1960 - The Huffington Post
This is the family Mac & Cheese Family recipe I grew up with. Just 3 ingre .
This is the family Mac & Cheese Family recipe I grew up with. Just 3 ingre .
Lagavulin Single Malt Whisky
Part of the triumvirate of heavily-peated southern Islay malts, alongside Ardbeg and Laphroaig, Lagavulin distillery was officially founded in 1816 by John Johnston (although illicit distillation is said to have been carried out on the site since the mid-18th century) and is now owned by drinks giant Diageo – it has been the Islay representative of Diageo's Classic Malts selection since 1987.
Lagavulin is almost exclusively matured in ex-bourbon casks, meaning its robust, uncompromising smoke and salted-fish character comes storming out of the glass unhindered. It has converted untold numbers of people to whisky drinking and remains the firm favourite of countless malt fans worldwide. One of its most high-profile fans, albeit a fictional one, is Ron Swanson. This character from Parks and Recreation, played by Nick Offerman, loves Lagavulin so much that he not only visited the distillery, but also starred in a 45-minute promotional video for them.
Allocations of the standard 16 Year Old are never adequate to satisfy demand for the product, resulting in frequent shortages. Diageo solves this problem by also releasing a cask strength 12 Year Old almost every year, along with the vintage-dated Distillers Edition series, which has been finished in sweet Pedro Ximénez sherry casks and has won numerous awards in its own right.
To mark its 200th anniversary in 2016, Lagavulin released an eight-year-old whisky that is regularly awarded five stars by our customers. Alongside this affordable, tasty dram, the distillery also released a limited number of bottles of its 25 Year Old, which raised more than £500,000 for charity.
Perhaps the most memorable Lagavulin review comes from the late whisky writer Michael Jackson: &lsquoAn Islay classic. In the peatiness typical of the island, this is the most powerfully, intensely, dry. It also has smoke, salt and seaweedy, medicinal notes, though those characteristics are more evident in some of its neighbours.&rsquo
Lagavulin is made in the south of Islay, at a distillery with breathtaking views over Lagavulin Bay. Its whiskies are made with water from the Solan Lochs, while the peat &ndash so crucial to their distinctive flavour &ndash comes from the extensive peat bogs in the west of the island.
There are four stills at Lagavulin, two of them pear-shaped in the style inherited from Malt Mill, which run for longer than any others on Islay. Lagavulin whiskies will be in the stills for more than five hours for the first distillation and more than nine hours for the second. This long distillation is said to contribute towards the whisky&rsquos roundness and mellow edges.
Character and Style of Lagavulin
- Wet wool (wet dog)
- Fruit Cake
The history: a bitter Islay rivalry
The histories of Lagavulin and Laphroaig are closely tied, with Laphroaig said to have been founded by the son of the founder of Lagavulin. They were both called Johnston, you see.
After Laphroaig's Donald Johnston (the aforementioned son of John Johnston) fell into a vat of boiling whisky in 1847, Lagavulin's Walter Graham leased Laphroaig and ran both distilleries until the young Dugald Johnston (Donald Johnston's son) was ready to take over Laphroaig. However, a generation or so later, around the end of the 19th Century, the two distilleries got into an unseemly and litigious scrap after Laphroaig tried to get out of an existing agency agreement to sell their whisky to Lagavulin for the latter's blends (which included White Horse, invented in 1890 by Lagavulin's then-owner Peter Mackie). This resulted in a string of court cases.
After the agency had finally run out in 1907, and with Laphroaig refusing to renew it, Lagavulin retaliated and blocked off Laphroaig's water supply, necessitating another return to court to sort out the rights. Laphroaig won this round, only for Lagavulin to pinch its distillery manager the following year and set about trying to create copies of Laphroaig's stills in a bid to make a spirit that would taste exactly the same. Fortunately, this attempt was not successful and today relations between the two great distilleries are rather more cordial.
On the Origins of Carbonara
A beloved recipe that is known, emulated and revisited the world over, pasta alla carbonara is associated with Roman cuisine, but its origins are unclear, and while many stories exist, none seem to be definitive.
The origin of a dish can be extrapolated from recipe books, and it looks like there are no written recipes of carbonara until the 1940s. There are however antecedents: for example, the first combination of egg and pasta seems to date from 1773, mentioned by Neapolitan chef Vincenzo Corrado in “Il cuoco galante.” In the 18 th century, pasta dressed with cheese was widespread in most of Italy, and in 1881, another Neapolitan cook describes maccheroni tossed with cheese and eggs.
The use of lard or guanciale as a condiment for pasta is recorded by cookbooks only much later.
The appearance of the first carbonara recipe, similar but not identical to the one we know today, dates from August 1954, when it was published by food magazine La Cucina Italiana. The ingredients were: spaghetti, egg, pancetta, gruyere and garlic.
The following year, the carbonara appears in a cookbook in a version more similar to today's, with the presence of eggs, pepper, parmigiano (or pecorino if you prefer a spicier taste) and pancetta.
Guanciale replaces pancetta for the first time in 1960, when panna (cream) was also featured in the recipe, something that would be considered wrong today.
Indeed, up until the 1990s, there were other ingredients in the recipe for carbonara, such as wine, garlic, onion, parsley, bell pepper, black pepper and chili pepper, that are absent from today’s recipe, which only features egg yolk, pecorino cheese, guanciale and black pepper.
As for how the dish was invented, one of the most accredited theories concerns American soldiers in Rome during and right after World War II, when food shortage was extreme, and what happened was a marrying of traditions, the egg and bacon dish typical of American breakfast and pasta with cacio (cheese) already common in Italy for centuries.
There appears to be no ancient ancestors of the carbonara. According to food magazine Gambero Rosso, the story of charcoal burners who, when out for work in the central Apennines, filled their baskets with dry spaghetti, eggs, pancetta and pecorino is unhistorical, although some consider the carbonara an evolution of this tradition.
Ricetta amata, conosciuta, imitata e rivisitata in tutto il mondo, la pasta alla carbonara è associata alla cucina romana, ma le sue origini sono incerte e, sebbene esistano molte leggende, nessuna sembra essere conclusiva.
L'origine di un piatto si estrapola dai libri di ricette e pare che non vi siano ricette scritte sulla carbonara fino agli anni '40 del ‘900. Vi sono tuttavia antecedenti: ad esempio, la prima combinazione di uova e pasta sembra risalire al 1773, menzionata dal cuoco napoletano Vincenzo Corrado ne “Il cuoco galante”. Nel XVIII° secolo, la pasta condita con formaggio era diffusa in gran parte d'Italia, e nel 1881, un altro cuoco napoletano descrive un piatto di maccheroni conditi con formaggio e uova.
L'uso del lardo o guanciale come condimento per la pasta viene registrato dai libri di cucina solo molto più tardi.
La prima ricetta alla carbonara, simile ma non identica a quella che conosciamo oggi, risale all'agosto 1954, quando fu pubblicata dalla rivista La Cucina Italiana. Gli ingredienti erano: spaghetti, uova, pancetta, gruviera e aglio.
L'anno seguente, la carbonara appare in un libro di cucina in una versione più simile a quella odierna, con la presenza di uova, pepe, parmigiano (o pecorino se si preferisce un sapore più piccante) e pancetta.
Il guanciale sostituisce la pancetta per la prima volta nel 1960, quando anche la panna era presente nella ricetta, un elemento che oggi sarebbe considerato sbagliato.
Infatti, fino agli anni '90, c'erano altri ingredienti nella ricetta della carbonara, come vino, aglio, cipolla, prezzemolo, peperone, pepe nero e peperoncino, per lo più assenti dalla ricetta odierna, che contiene solo tuorlo d'uovo, pecorino, guanciale e pepe nero.
Per quanto riguarda il modo in cui il piatto è stato inventato, una delle teorie più accreditate riguarda i soldati americani a Roma durante e subito dopo la seconda guerra mondiale, quando la carenza di cibo era estrema e si verificò una unione di tradizioni, la tipica colazione americana a base di uova e pancetta, e la pasta con cacio (formaggio) diffusa in Italia da secoli.
Sembra che non vi siano antichi predecessori della carbonara. Secondo il Gambero Rosso, la leggenda secondo cui i carbonai, quando andavano fuori per lavoro nell'Appennino centrale, riempissero i loro cesti di spaghetti secchi, uova, pancetta e pecorino, non ha validità storica, anche se alcuni considerano la carbonara un'evoluzione di questa tradizione.
This popularity, combined with a rumoured shortfall in mature stock, gave rise in 2003 to a notorious episode in the distillery's history when Diageo began selling a 'pure' malt under the name of Cardhu in the same packaging as the previous single malt expression.
This 'pure' malt was believed to include spirit from up to four other distilleriesas well as Cardhu. Cue an almighty uproar, with questions asked in Parliament, Diageo vowing to stand firm andthe rest of the industry threatening legal action against Diageo for misleading customers and devaluing the status of single malt whisky. Thankfully the scale of this hullabaloo was sufficient to force Diageo into withdrawing the Pure Malt version of Cardhu (which has now become something of a collector's item), and re-instating the brand as a single malt, to general relief.
Cardhu is normally sold as a 12 year old, although following the success of a couple of Rare Malt expressions at the end of the 1990s, a 22 year-old cask strength version was issued as part of Diageo's Special Releases in 2005. The year after, a no-age-statement Special Cask Reserve expression was also released and has proved a success. Cardhu is also a key constituent in the Johnnie Walker blend. For reasons which should be very clear, independent bottlings of Cardhu are extremely rare to non-existent.
From the website
Cardhu Distillery &ndash previously called Cardow &ndash must be one of the best located distilleries in Speyside. High on the hills on the north side of the Spey Valley with extensive views to the south, it is set in attractive grounds ideal for picnics (complete with picnic tables).
The malt itself &ndash which is presented in an elegant decanter with a beechwood stopper - is pretty typical of a Speyside malt. It is highly approachable &ndash smooth, sweet, mellow and uncomplicated. It has good body and length. &lsquoThe malt whisky produced at Cardhu has a cleanliness of taste &ndash often described as silky. It&rsquos a taste that is obviously popular as it is known and loved all over the world.&rsquo
Such is the popularity of Cardhu single malt in Spain that worldwide demand has outstripped the capacity of this small distillery, with the result that its malt is sadly no longer available in many countries.
THE DISTILLERY IN THE PAST
By the time John Cumming bought a license for his Cardhu distillery in 1824, he and his wife Helen had already been producing illicit whisky for 13 years.
Whenever the Excise officers passed by, Helen would disguise the mashing and fermenting as bread-making. Then, while the officers drank the tea she made for them, she would fly a red flag from the barn to warn their neighbours that revenue men were around.
Once the distillery was officially licensed, John and Helen Cumming continued to value quality over quantity. Their son and daughter-in-law, Elizabeth, followed in their footsteps. The qualities of the malt they produced became essential to John Walker and Sons (of Johnnie Walker fame &ndash unsurprisingly). So much so, in fact, that in 1893, Cardhu was the first distillery that they bought &ndash although it was still run for a time by John and Helen&rsquos grandson, also called John.
By the end of the 19th century, Cardhu had gained a reputation as one of Scotland&rsquos top malt whisky distilleries.
Character and Style of Cardhu
In the beginning.
Grammars were once books used to teach grammar. They seem peculiarly old-fashioned now, as literacy itself is soon going to seem, in George Steiner's view, though they were among the first 'how to' books. They had to be grammatical themselves, good examples of what they taught and they had to be unembarrassedly instructive. It was through grammars that the great classical and biblical civilisations of the past were opened up, and through grammars more and more people in the West were initiated into what was once deemed to be the best future, literacy.
Even though grammar was itself technical, a discipline in its own right, speaking and writing seem the most natural things in the world. The study of language shows us that we are, paradoxically, utterly law abiding and innovative in our language use. We can only improvise when we have something to improvise with. We are in the process of losing our faith in language, Steiner believes, and that this is just like losing our faith in God, and may be even worse.
Steiner has been writing grammars of an unusually baroque and dramatic kind all his (writing) life. And in Grammars of Creation, he has come out as the remarkable grammarian that he is, to write a kind of summa of his work, to tell us about the rules and regulations - and the complementary inspirations and anomalies - of creation in its fullest and most fulsome sense. He is, as ever, grandly erudite and thrilled by crisis. But like all the most intent cultural critics there is something he is daunted by, and the occasional melodrama of his style, no less than the many pointed and provocative formulations in this book are reflective of this abiding preoccupation.
That people are excessively cruel and excessively imaginative - and also sometimes concerned to temper their excesses - has always been for Steiner the theme, as it were, of the twentieth century. What Grammars of Creation homes in on, continuing the argument in Real Presences, and that began most vividly in Bluebeard's Castle, is just what it is that sustains our modern confidence in being alive.
Our faith that life is a virtue in itself, or even an outright gift is, in Steiner's view, constantly under threat, and never more so than now. What he calls 'the gusto of optimism', our more ambitious hopes for ourselves, are fading. There is, he believes, 'in the climate of spirit at the end of the twentieth century, a core-tiredness'. Though Grammars of Creation is characteristically exhilarated and exhilarating about our cultural achievements in the arts and the sciences - and Steiner is as riveting in this book talking about modern cosmology as he is about Philip Larkin as 'an annotator of common ground' - it reads rather more as a Decline and Fall of the Human Empire.
So Grammars of Creation is about everything grammars and creations hold at bay. 'Our thoughts and feelings,' Steiner writes, 'find nothingness and the pressure of non-being difficult to sustain.' He has always written against the grain of British no-nonsense philistinism. His style and abiding preoccupations always court the reader's prejudices (it is as though there has always been a satirist in Steiner who knows too well about the exasperation and mockery he incites).
In Grammars of Creation, he puts pressure on us to consider the various nothingnesses we live with. Not only are our individual lives haunted by our forthcoming absence, but every work of art - and art, for Steiner, is at once our grand inquisitor and the best way life has come up with of justifying itself - is 'attended by a two-fold shadow: that of its own possible or preferable inexistence, and that of its disappearance'.
The phrase 'two-fold shadow' is worth attending to here because it keeps in focus the very difficulty that Steiner is exploring: the way our ideas of creativity and creation (in the theological sense) are ways of countering and acknowledging the absences, the disappearances we have to live with. Our futures (what might happen) are, in Steiner's sense, as 'inexistent' as our pasts (what might have been). Our erotic lives are made out of what isn't there. 'Love knows of absences more vehement, more expressive of the promise of hope,' Steiner writes, 'than is any presence.'
Music transforms silence by including it in its structure. Any work of art, like any individual life, need not have happened, and could always have been different. And it is only in language, through grammar, as Steiner is so keen to impress upon us, that our lives have such tenses available to them. Without language, we can't tell the time.
Steiner suggests in this book that our sense of ourselves as creators - and we can only bear ourselves in his view as creators and inventors, a distinction that is at the heart of the book - has quite literally depended upon our assumption of divine or supernatural creation. As though the existence of God (or gods) is the only thing that can make us at all god-like and if we are not god-like, we are merely 'barbarous', to use one of Steiner's key words. 'Can there, will there be major philosophy, literature, music and art of an atheist provenance?' Steiner asks plaintively at the end of this book.
But gods, of course, have always been famous for their violence, for licensing their own passions. And 'major' culture of any sort, with its absurdist military connotations, may not be the be all and end all. It's impossible not to argue with Steiner, partly because with every turn of phrase he wants to impress something upon us. But he can make us feel that reading is a kind of privilege, which is itself strange now.
Grammars of Creation, even when it seems to be simply a 'salutary exaggeration' (to use one of so many good phrases in this book) is a fabulous education.
An academic life
Professor George Steiner
Born: Paris, 1929
Education France, US and Britain, including a Rhodes Scholarship to Balliol College, Oxford.
Positions held 1952, editorial staff of the Economist 1956, elected member of the Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton 1974-1994, Professor of English and Comparative Literature, Geneva University 1969, appointed Extraordinary Fellow of Churchill College, Cambridge 1994, appointed Lord Weidenfeld Professor of Comparative Literature at Oxford.
Awards 1971, Guggenheim Fellowship 1984, Chevalier de la Legion d'Honneur 2001, Commandeur dans l'ordre des Arts et des Lettres.
Publications include Tolstoy or Dostoyevsky (1960) The Death of Tragedy (1961) Anno Domini (1964) Language & Silence (1967) Bluebeard's Castle (1971) The Portage of San Cristobal of AH (1981) Real Presences (1992).
The perfect end to a filling meal — digestifs are after-dinner alcoholic beverages that aid digestion. Not to be confused with apéritif, a light spirit consumed before a meal to spark the appetite, digestifs are traditionally higher in alcohol and tend to be sweeter, usually made with a secret blend of herbs and spices.
Digestif is a French word, but this drink has become a tradition in many cultures around the world. Some spirits are considered digestifs, such as grappa, Armagnac and Cognac.
GAYOT’s Featured Digestifs, however, are those that don’t fit these categories, but are rather strictly known as digestifs.
Origin: Canelli, Italy
Price: $20.99 for 750 ml.
By: Haus Alpenz
This wine-based Amaro was developed over 100 years ago by the Bosca family and is a true expression of Piemonte tradition.
It’s a naturally-colored alternative to Cynar, getting its dark color from the infusion of cardoon, blessed thistle and other botanicals. It ages in new oak for at least six months, resulting in a rich liqueur with flavors of fresh pine, dried fruit and roasted nuts.
2. Comte de Lauvia 1960
Price: $279.99 for 750 ml.
By: Lauvia Armagnac
Birthed at the Château de Champagne d’Armagnac in Gascony, France, Comte de Lauvia Armagnac is distilled from the traditional Ugni blanc and Folle blanche grape varietals.
It is then aged in black oak, where it extracts and develops flavors of figs, intense prunes and vanilla, along with hints of banana. The luscious nose is consistent with the flavors on the palate, with the addition of light floral notes coupled with raisins. Dreamy and ethereal, mature yet intense, this Armagnac was developed through years of aging in the caves of France, and remains a spirit for the ages. Perfect for celebrations, sip it after dinner or with a savory dish like osso buco or classic Peking duck.
3. Distillerie Berta Bric del Gaian 1998 Moscato d’Asti Grappa
Origin: Mombaruzzo, Italy
Price: $180 for 750 ml.
By: Distillerie Berta
The 1998 Bric del Gaian from Distillerie Berta is among the most aromatic grappas ever made.
There’s no need to fight through the 44 percent alcohol, because it is in perfect balance with the Moscato grape-driven aromas. A hint of ginger and vanilla bean are overtaken by the floral notes of honeysuckle and orange blossom. The palate delivers the perfect ripeness of summer-raised peaches, oranges and apricots surrounded by honey and almonds. The pungent and powerful profile of grappa is redirected here into an elegant and approachable spirit of high merit.
4. Distillerie Berta Tre Soli Tre 1998
Origin: Mombaruzzo, Italy
Price: $199 for 750 ml.
By: Distillerie Berta
Born in the Mombaruzzo area of Italy’s Asti Province in the wine growing region of Piedmont, Berta Tre Soli Tre is a stunning grappa.
It presents the marriage of the king of Italian grapes, Nebbiolo de Barolo, and one of the great distilleries in all of Italy run by the Berta family. Most grappa is clear, but this one is the rich amber brown of the heartland. This is a powerful spirit at 44% ABV and composed of richness derived from the Nebbiolo de Barolo. Shockingly ripe notes of blackberry and cassis together with vanilla and a touch of both apricot and sweet cherries engage all your senses at once. The nose acquires the bouquet of the Piedmont region while delivering to the palate an exceptionally balanced flavor profile finishing like a complex and delicious dessert.
Origin: Milan, Italy
Price: $25.99 for 750 ml.
By: Fratelli Branca
Bernandino Branca first created Fernet-Branca bitters in 1845, which led to the beginning of the famous Fratelli Branca Distillery.
This digestif is based on the same secret recipe that Branca created in 1845. It offers rich bitter flavors of myrrh, chamomile, cinnamon, saffron and bitter orange.
6. Germain-Robin Anno Domini 2005 Alambic Brandy
Origin: Ukiah, CA, U.S.
Price: $400 for 750 ml.
By: Craft Distillers
Some spirits are crafted well, some boast a remarkable smell, and still others are standard-bearers for their category.
The Germain-Robin Anno Domini 2005 Alambic Brandy is in an altogether different class of spirits that are simply irresistible. This limited release (only 200 bottles were made we tasted number 101) shows off the best of Mendocino, California’s grapes distilled by the hand of a master, before resting in French Limousin oak until mature. The 2000 edition was renowned, the 2001-2004 editions were all award-winners, but the 2005 version is the pinnacle of both the concept and the distiller. Magic!
7. Germain-Robin Single Barrel Muscat Brandy
Origin: Ukiah, CA, U.S.
Price: $140 for 750 ml.
By: Craft Distillers
In the new millennium, Cognac is considered hip, now, and sells strongly as rappers have embraced the drink, and even created some of their own.
But brandy is regarded a fuddy-duddy old-fashioned spirit, an anachronistic after-dinner beverage for old codgers to enjoy when they retire to the card room with cigars after dinner. News flash: all Cognacs are brandies! The word comes from brandwijn (or “burnt wine”), and is basically a concentrated wine which is distilled and barrel-aged. Brandy that comes from the Cognac region of France — which has ideal soils and climate for the spirit, as well as a special distillation process — is known as Cognac. So, not all brandies are Cognacs.
This particular brandy is from Mendocino County, California, where Hubert Germain-Robin hand-distills high quality varietal wine grapes on a pot still from, of all places, Cognac. After aging, the proof is lowered to 88 by the addition of filtered rainwater. The rich, complex spirit is made from 100 percent Muscat grapes from the 1999 harvest. There’s plenty of orange peel which shows up pleasantly in the nose. The orange flavors continue on the palate, where the brandy plays oh-so-softly, and a delightfully clean, citrusy aftertaste. If Gin ‘n’ Juice is worth rapping about, then this deserves a symphony.
Origin: Wolfenbüttel, Germany
Price: $19.99 for 750 ml.
This hunter-inspired German classic combines 56 secret herbs and spices to make a licorice-flavored liqueur.
Known to have been used as an herbal remedy in German households, Jägermeister’s spicy, herbal flavor makes for a great post-dinner drink.
9. Lucid Absinthe
Origin: Saumur, France
Price: $65 for 750 ml.
By: Combier Distillery
Absinthe made with wormwood was prohibited in the United States for nearly a century.
Lucid Absinthe claims to be the only genuine absinthe available in the country that is made from Grande Wormwood (Artemisia absinthium). Some absinthe aficionados say it is still missing thujone, the chemical believed to cause the alleged hallucinogenic properties of the drink, but the makers insist otherwise. You be the judge, but keep in mind this potent anise- and fennel-flavored spirit is a whopping 124 proof. While some complain that the anise flavoring has been downgraded for the American palate, we found the French import enjoyable but not overbearing. Try the green goodness the old-fashioned way, with sugar cubes and slotted spoon, as the louching ritual allows you to enjoy the release of the oils both visually and olfactorily, taste the unadulterated flavor, as well as get a throwback thrill. Or try it in a cocktail.
10. Macchu Pisco
Price: $27 for 750 ml.
By: Macchu Pisco
Pisco is a burgeoning category in the world of mixology, and the superior flavor and quality of Macchu Pisco is helping to fuel that growth.
Purity is part of pisco’s allure. This unadulterated spirit is made of just one ingredient: grape juice. Peruvian regulations decree that nothing, not even water, can be added when producing this alcohol. Founded in Peru in 2005, the Macchu Pisco company is a rarity in the world of spirits — its owner, master distiller and blender is a woman. In Peru’s Ica Valley, the home of Macchu Pisco, top-quality Quebranta grapes are pressed by foot, then fermented and distilled in copper pot stills. The final product is medium-bodied, with vanilla, lime, lemongrass and earthy notes.
11. Margerum Wine Company Amaro
Origin: Santa Barbara, CA, U.S.A.
Price: $50 for 750 ml.
By: Margerum Wine Company
Amaro means “bitter” in Italian, which is Margerum Wine Company’s house recipe of the fortified wine.
It is made with herbs, such as sage, thyme, rosemary and mint, dried orange peel and caramelized simple syrup. Serve chilled, or as a bitter part of a cocktail.
12. Père Magloire Grand Pommier XS Calvados
Origin: Pont-l’Évêque, France
Price: $300 for 750 ml.
By: Père Magloire Calvados Distillery
The Grand Pommier, or Great Apple Tree, is an Extra Special Reserve Calvados with a subtle, refined spirit and a full-bodied finish of apple wood and spice, without the use of any preservatives or additives.
Since 1821, the legendary French Père Magloire Calvados Distillery has been producing world-class product, and now delivers a complete after-dinner event in a bottle. As a present is not fully wrapped without a bow, so does the Fuente Forbidden X cigar encapsulated in the specially designed bottle provide the finishing touch to a perfect pairing with this extraordinary Grand Pommier XS Calvados. Here’s finally a design with substance in both the stellar spirit and the accompanying world-class cigar. It’s a great way to finish an evening — or start a party.
13. Roger Groult Réserve Ancestrale 50 Year Old
Origin: Saint-Cyr-du-Ronceray, France
Price: $280 for 750 ml.
By: Roger Groult
The complexities of this spirit lend it to a myriad of uses.
Enjoy it as a rare digestif, on the rocks, neat or in a magical cocktail. The apple-based spirit’s quality is the result of equal parts tradition and attention to detail. There are no pesticides or mechanical pickers used instead, several generations of family insight since the mid-1800s have yielded a multi-stage process that involves the hand-harvesting of more than 50 varieties of apples. These stages include: le rodage — picking up fallen apples first then la récolte — the shaking of the trees to dislodge the fully ripe apples and last, la troisième — searching the earth under the trees to collect the strays.
It takes nearly 65 pounds of these apples to produce this 50-year-old dream Calvados. A hand-made, artisanal 140-proof treasure with intense aromatics, it offers deep rich earth and a touch of the sea, coupled with the smell of grade school books and a tender, finessed mouthfeel to be enjoyed and celebrated. It’s a taste of history with a long finish — true to the land of Normandy from which it hails.
1946–1961: Early life
Cher was born Cherilyn Sarkisian in El Centro, California, on May 20, 1946.  Her father, John Sarkisian, was an Armenian-American truck driver with drug and gambling problems her mother, Georgia Holt (born Jackie Jean Crouch), was an occasional model and bit-part actress who claims Irish, English, German, and Cherokee ancestry.   Cher's father was rarely home when she was an infant,  and her parents divorced when Cher was ten months old.  Her mother later married actor John Southall, with whom she had another daughter, Georganne, Cher's half-sister. 
Now living in Los Angeles, Cher's mother began acting while working as a waitress. She changed her name to Georgia Holt and played minor roles in films and on television. Holt also secured acting parts for her daughters as extras on television shows like The Adventures of Ozzie and Harriet.  Her mother's relationship with Southall ended when Cher was nine years old, but she considers him her father and remembers him as a "good-natured man who turned belligerent when he drank too much".  Holt remarried and divorced several more times, and she moved her family around the country (including New York, Texas, and California).  They often had little money, and Cher recounted having had to use rubber bands to hold her shoes together.  At one point, her mother left Cher at an orphanage for several weeks.  Although they met every day, both found the experience traumatic. 
When Cher was in fifth grade, she produced a performance of the musical Oklahoma! for her teacher and class. She organized a group of girls, directing and choreographing their dance routines. Unable to convince boys to participate, she acted the male roles and sang their songs. By age nine, she had developed an unusually low voice.  Fascinated by film stars, Cher's role model was Audrey Hepburn, particularly due to her role in the 1961 film Breakfast at Tiffany's. Cher began to take after the unconventional outfits and behavior of Hepburn's character.  She was also inspired by Marlene Dietrich, Bette Davis, and Katharine Hepburn.  She was disappointed by the absence of dark-haired Hollywood actresses whom she could emulate.  She had wanted to be famous since childhood but felt unattractive and untalented, later commenting, "I couldn't think of anything that I could do . I didn't think I'd be a singer or dancer. I just thought, well, I'll be famous. That was my goal." 
In 1961, Holt married bank manager Gilbert LaPiere, who adopted Cher (under the name Cheryl LaPiere)  and Georganne, and enrolled them at Montclair College Preparatory School, a private school in Encino, whose students were mostly from affluent families. The school's upper-class environment presented a challenge for Cher biographer Connie Berman wrote, "[she] stood out from the others in both her striking appearance and outgoing personality."  A former classmate commented, "I'll never forget seeing Cher for the first time. She was so special . She was like a movie star, right then and there . She said she was going to be a movie star and we knew she would."  Despite not being an excellent student, Cher was intelligent and creative, according to Berman. She earned high grades, excelling in French and English classes. As an adult, she discovered that she had dyslexia. Cher's unconventional behavior stood out: she performed songs for students during the lunch hours and surprised peers when she wore a midriff-baring top.  She later recalled, "I was never really in school. I was always thinking about when I was grown up and famous." 
1962–1965: Solo career breakthrough
At age 16, Cher dropped out of school, left her mother's house, and moved to Los Angeles with a friend. She took acting classes and worked to support herself, dancing in small clubs along Hollywood's Sunset Strip and introducing herself to performers, managers, and agents.  According to Berman, "[Cher] did not hesitate to approach anyone she thought could help her get a break, make a new contact, or get an audition."  Cher met performer Sonny Bono in November 1962 when he was working for record producer Phil Spector.  Cher's friend moved out, and Cher accepted Sonny's offer to be his housekeeper.  Sonny introduced Cher to Spector, who used her as a backup singer on many recordings, including the Ronettes' "Be My Baby" and the Righteous Brothers' "You've Lost That Lovin' Feelin'".  Spector produced her first single, "Ringo, I Love You", which Cher recorded under the name Bonnie Jo Mason.  The song was rejected by many radio stations programmers as they thought Cher's deep contralto vocals were a man's vocals therefore, they believed it was a male homosexual singing a love song dedicated to the Beatles drummer Ringo Starr. 
Cher and Sonny became close friends, eventual lovers, and performed their own unofficial wedding ceremony in a hotel room in Tijuana, Mexico, on October 27, 1964.   Although Sonny had wanted to launch Cher as a solo artist, she encouraged him to perform with her because she suffered from stage fright, and he began joining her onstage, singing the harmonies. Cher disguised her nervousness by looking at Sonny she later commented that she sang to the people through him.  In late 1964, they emerged as a duo called Caesar & Cleo, releasing the poorly received singles "Do You Wanna Dance?", "Love Is Strange", and "Let the Good Times Roll". 
Cher signed with Liberty Records' Imperial imprint in the end of 1964, and Sonny became her producer. The single "Dream Baby", released under the name "Cherilyn", received airplay in Los Angeles.  Imperial encouraged Cher to work with Sonny on her second solo single for the label, a cover version of Bob Dylan's "All I Really Want to Do".  It peaked at number 15 on the US Billboard Hot 100 in 1965.  Meanwhile, the Byrds had released their own version of the same song. When competition on the singles charts started between Cher and the Byrds, the group's record label began to promote the B-side of the Byrds' single. Roger McGuinn of the Byrds commented, "We loved the Cher version . We didn't want to hassle. So we just turned our record over."  Cher's debut album, All I Really Want to Do (1965), reached number 16 on the Billboard 200  it was later described by AllMusic's Tim Sendra as "one of the stronger folk-pop records of the era". 
1965–1967: Sonny and Cher's rise to pop stardom
In early 1965, Caesar and Cleo began calling themselves Sonny & Cher.  Following the recording of "I Got You Babe", they traveled to England in July 1965 at the Rolling Stones' advice Cher recalled, "[they] had told us . that Americans just didn't get us and that if we were going to make it big, we were going to have to go to England."  According to writer Cintra Wilson, "English newspaper photographers showed up when S&C were thrown out of the London Hilton [because of their outfits] the night they arrived—literally overnight, they were stars. London went gaga for the heretofore-unseen S&C look, which was neither mod nor rocker." 
"I Got You Babe" reached number one on the Billboard Hot 100 chart  and became, according to AllMusic's Bruce Eder, "one of the biggest-selling and most beloved pop/rock hits of the mid-'60s"  Rolling Stone listed it among "The 500 Greatest Songs of All Time" in 2003.  As the song knocked the Beatles off the top of the British charts, English teenagers began to emulate Sonny and Cher's fashion style, such as bell-bottoms, striped pants, ruffled shirts, industrial zippers and fur vests.  Upon their return to the US, the duo made several appearances on the teen-pop showcases Hullabaloo and Shindig!  and completed a tour of some of the largest arenas in the US.  Their shows attracted Cher look-alikes—"girls who were ironing their hair straight and dyeing it black, to go with their vests and bell-bottoms".  Cher expanded her creative range by designing a clothing line. 
Sonny and Cher's first album, Look at Us (1965), released for the Atco Records division of Atlantic Records,  spent eight weeks at number two on the Billboard 200, behind the Beatles' Help!.  Their material became popular, and the duo successfully competed with the dominant British Invasion and Motown sounds of the era.  Author Joseph Murrells described Sonny and Cher as "part of the leading exponents of the rock-folk-message type of song, a hybrid combining the best and instrumentation of rock music with folk lyric and often lyrics of protest."  Sonny and Cher charted ten Billboard top 40 singles between 1965 and 1972, including five top-ten singles: "I Got You Babe", "Baby Don't Go", "The Beat Goes On", "All I Ever Need Is You", and "A Cowboy's Work Is Never Done".  At one point, they had five songs in the top 50 at the same time, a feat equaled only by the Beatles and Elvis Presley.  By the end of 1967, they had sold 40 million records worldwide and had become, according to Time magazine's Ginia Bellafante, rock's "it" couple. 
Cher's following releases kept her solo career fully competitive with her work with Sonny.  The Sonny Side of Chér (1966) features "Bang Bang (My Baby Shot Me Down)", which reached number two in the US and number three in the UK and became her first million-seller solo single. Chér, also released in 1966, contains the Burt Bacharach and Hal David composition "Alfie", which was added to the credits of the American version of the 1966 film of the same name and became the first stateside version of the popular song. With Love, Chér (1967) includes songs described by biographer Mark Bego as "little soap-opera stories set to rock music" such as the US top-ten single "You Better Sit Down Kids". 
1967–1970: Backlash from the younger generation, first marriage
By the end of the 1960s, Sonny and Cher's music had ceased to chart. According to Berman, "the heavy, loud sound of groups like Jefferson Airplane and Cream made the folk-rock music of Sonny and Cher seem too bland."  Cher later said, "I loved the new sound of Led Zeppelin, Eric Clapton, the electric-guitar oriented bands. Left to myself, I would have changed with the times because the music really turned me on. But [Sonny] didn't like it—and that was that."  Their monogamous lifestyle during the period of the sexual revolution  and the anti-drug position they adopted at the height of the drug culture lost them popularity among American youths.  According to Bego, "in spite of their revolutionary unisex clothes, Sonny and Cher were quite 'square' when it came to sex and drugs."  In an attempt to recapture their young audience, the duo produced and starred in the film Good Times (1967), which was commercially unsuccessful. 
Cher's next album, Backstage (1968), in which she explores diverse musical genres including Brazilian jazz and anti-war protest settings, was not a commercial success.  In 1969, she was dropped from Imperial Records. Sonny and Cher had been dropped from Atco however, the label wanted to sign Cher for a solo album.  3614 Jackson Highway (1969) was recorded without the guidance of Sonny in Alabama with prominent session musicians, the Muscle Shoals Rhythm Section (who appear on the album's cover along with Cher) and incorporates experiments in rhythm and blues and soul music. AllMusic's Mark Deming proclaimed it "arguably the finest album of her career", and still "a revelation" decades later.  Displeased with the 3614 Jackson Highway album, Sonny prevented Cher from releasing more recordings for Atco. 
Meanwhile, Sonny dated others, and by the end of the 1960s their relationship had begun to unravel. According to People magazine, "[Sonny] tried desperately to win her back, telling her he wanted to marry and start a family."  They officially married after she gave birth on March 4, 1969, to Chaz Bono.  
The duo spent $500,000 and mortgaged their home to make the film Chastity (1969). Written and directed by Sonny, who did not appear in the movie, it tells the story of a young woman, played by Cher, searching for the meaning of life.  The art film failed commercially, putting the couple $190,000 in debt with back taxes. However, some critics noted that Cher showed signs of acting potential  Cue magazine wrote, "Cher has a marvelous quality that often makes you forget the lines you are hearing." 
At the lowest point of their career, the duo put together a nightclub routine that relied on a more adult approach to sound and style.  According to writer Cintra Wilson, "Their lounge act was so depressing, people started heckling them. Then Cher started heckling back. Sonny . reprimanded her then she'd heckle Sonny".  The heckling became a highlight of the act and attracted viewers.  Television executives took note, and the couple began making guest appearances on prime-time shows, in which they presented a "new, sophisticated, and mature" image.  Cher adopted alluring, low-cut gowns that became her signature outfits. 
1971–1974: Television career breakthrough, first musical comeback
CBS head of programming Fred Silverman offered Sonny and Cher their own television program after he noticed them as guest-hosts on The Merv Griffin Show in 1971.  The Sonny & Cher Comedy Hour premiered as a summer replacement series on August 1, 1971, and had six episodes. Because it was a ratings success, the couple returned that December with a full-time show. 
Watched by more than 30 million viewers weekly during its three-year run,  The Sonny & Cher Comedy Hour was praised for the comedic timing, and deadpan Cher mocked Sonny about his looks and short stature. According to Berman, they "exuded an aura of warmth, playfulness, and caring that only enhanced their appeal. Viewers were further enchanted when a young [Chaz] also appeared on the show. They seemed like a perfect family."  Cher honed her acting skills in sketch comedy roles such as the brash housewife Laverne, the sardonic waitress Rosa, and historical vamps,  including Cleopatra and Miss Sadie Thompson.  The Bob Mackie-designed clothing Cher wore was part of the show's attraction, and her style influenced the fashion trends of the 1970s. 
In 1971, Sonny and Cher signed with the Kapp Records division of MCA Records, and Cher released the single "Classified 1A", in which she sings from the point of view of a soldier who bleeds to death in Vietnam. Written by Sonny, who felt that her first solo single on the label had to be poignant and topical, the song was rejected by radio station programmers as uncommercial. 
Since Sonny's first attempts at reviving their recording career as a duo had also been unsuccessful, Kapp Records recruited Snuff Garrett to work with them. He produced Cher's second US number-one single, "Gypsys, Tramps & Thieves", which "proved that . Garrett knew more about Cher's voice and her persona as a singer than Sonny did", writes Bego.  "Gypsys, Tramps & Thieves" was the first single by a solo artist to rank number one on the US Billboard Hot 100 chart at the same time as on the Canadian Singles Chart.  Billboard called it "one of the 20th century's greatest songs".  It was featured on the 1971 album Chér (eventually reissued under the title Gypsys, Tramps & Thieves), which was certified gold by the Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA).  Its second single, "The Way of Love", reached number seven on the Billboard Hot 100 chart  and established Cher's more confident image as a recording artist. 
In 1972, Cher released the all-ballad set Foxy Lady, demonstrating the evolution of her vocal abilities, according to Bego.  Following the release of the album, Garrett quit as producer after disagreeing with Sonny about the kind of material Cher should record.  At Sonny's insistence, in 1973 Cher released an album of standards called Bittersweet White Light, which was commercially unsuccessful.  That year, lyricist Mary Dean brought Garrett "Half-Breed", a song about the daughter of a Cherokee mother and a white father, that she had written especially for Cher. Although Garrett did not have Cher as a client at the time, he was convinced that "it's a smash for Cher and for nobody else", so he held the song for months until he got Cher back.  "Half-Breed" was featured on the album of the same name and became Cher's third US number-one single.  Both the album and the single were certified gold by the RIAA. 
In 1974, Cher released the song "Dark Lady" as the lead single from the namesake album.  It reached the top position on the Billboard Hot 100, becoming Cher's fourth number-one single and making her the female artist with the most number-one singles in United States history at the time.  Later that year, she released a Greatest Hits album that, according to Billboard magazine, proved her to be "one of the most consistent hitmakers of the past five years", as well as a "proven superstar who always sells records". 
Between 1971 and 1973, Sonny and Cher's recording career was revived with four albums released under Kapp Records and MCA Records: Sonny & Cher Live (1971), All I Ever Need Is You (1972), Mama Was a Rock and Roll Singer, Papa Used to Write All Her Songs (1973), and Live in Las Vegas Vol. 2 (1973).  Cher later commented on this period: "I could do a whole album . in three days . We were on the road . and we were doing the Sonny & Cher Show". 
1974–1979: Divorce from Sonny Bono, second marriage, decline in popularity
Cher and Sonny had marital problems since late 1972, but appearances were maintained until 1974. "The public still thinks we are married," Sonny wrote in his diary at the time, "[and] that's the way it has to be."  In February 1974, Sonny filed for a separation, citing "irreconcilable differences".  A week later, Cher countered with a divorce suit and charged Sonny with "involuntary servitude", claiming that he withheld money from her and deprived her of her rightful share of their earnings.  The couple battled in court over finances and the custody of Chaz, which was eventually granted to Cher.  Their divorce was finalized on June 26, 1975. 
In 1974, Cher won the Golden Globe Award for Best Actress – Television Series Musical or Comedy for The Sonny & Cher Comedy Hour.  The same year, Sonny premiered a solo show on ABC, The Sonny Comedy Revue, which carried the creative team behind the Sonny and Cher show. It was canceled after 13 weeks. 
During the divorce proceedings, Cher had a two-year romantic relationship with record executive David Geffen, who freed her from her business arrangement with Sonny, under which she was required to work exclusively for Cher Enterprises, the company he ran.  Geffen secured a $2.5 million deal for Cher with Warner Bros. Records,  and she began work on her first album under that label in 1975. According to Bego, "it was their intention that [this album] was going to make millions of fans around the world take her seriously as a rock star, and not just a pop singer." 
Despite Cher's efforts to develop her musical range by listening to artists such as Stevie Wonder, Elton John, James Taylor, Carly Simon, Joni Mitchell, and Bob Dylan, the resulting album Stars was commercially and critically unsuccessful.  Janet Maslin of The Village Voice wrote, "Cher is just no rock and roller . Image, not music, is Cher Bono's main ingredient for both records and TV."  The album has since become a cult classic and is generally considered among her best work. 
On February 16, 1975, Cher returned to television with a solo show on CBS. Called Cher, it began as a highly rated special with guests Flip Wilson, Elton John, and Bette Midler.  The show was produced by Geffen and centered on Cher's songs, monologues, comedy performance, and her variation of clothing,  which was the largest for a weekly TV show.  Early critical reception was favorable the Los Angeles Times exclaimed that "Sonny without Cher was a disaster. Cher without Sonny, on the other hand, could be the best thing that's happened to weekly television this season."  Cher lasted for less than a year, replaced by a new show in which she professionally reunited with ex-husband Sonny  she said, "doing a show alone was more than I could handle." 
On June 30, 1975, four days after finalizing her divorce from Sonny, Cher married rock musician Gregg Allman, co-founder of The Allman Brothers Band.  She filed for divorce nine days later because of his heroin and liquor problems, but they reconciled within a month.  They had one son, Elijah Blue, on July 10, 1976.  Sonny and Cher's TV reunion, The Sonny and Cher Show, debuted on CBS in February 1976—the first show ever to star a divorced couple. Although the show was a ratings success on its premiere,  Cher and Sonny's insulting onscreen banter about their divorce,  her reportedly extravagant lifestyle, and her troubled relationship with Allman caused a public backlash  that eventually contributed to the show's cancellation in August 1977. 
In 1976, Mego Toys released a line of toys and dolls in the likeness of Sonny and Cher, which coincided with the popularity of The Sonny and Cher Show. The miniature version of Cher ended up being the highest selling doll of 1976, surpassing Barbie. 
Cher's next albums, I'd Rather Believe in You (1976) and Cherished (1977), the latter a return to her pop style at Warner's producers' insistence, were commercially unsuccessful  Orange Coast magazine's Keith Tuber commented, "A weekly television series . can spell disaster for a recording artist . Regular exposure on TV allowed people to see and hear these performers without having to buy their records . That's what happened to Cher[.]"  In 1977, under the rubric "Allman and Woman", she recorded alongside Allman the duet album Two the Hard Way. Their relationship ended following the release of the album,  and their divorce was finalized in 1979.  Beginning in 1978,  she had a two-year  live-in relationship with Kiss member Gene Simmons.  That year, she legally changed her name from Cherilyn Sarkisian La Piere Bono Allman to Cher, to eliminate the use of four surnames.  She returned to prime time television with the ABC specials Cher. Special (1978)—featuring a 15-minute segment in which she performs all of the roles in her version of West Side Story—  and Cher. And Other Fantasies (1979). 
1979–1982: Second musical comeback, shift from disco music to rock
A single mother with two children, Cher realized that she had to make a choice about the direction of her singing career. Deciding to temporarily abandon her desire to be a rock singer, she signed with Casablanca Records and launched a comeback with the single "Take Me Home" and the album of the same name, both of which capitalized on the disco craze.  Both the album and the single became instant successes, remained bestsellers for more than half of 1979,  and were certified gold by the RIAA.  Sales of the album may have been boosted  by the image of a scantily clad Cher in a Viking outfit on its cover.  Despite her initial lack of enthusiasm for disco music, she changed her mind after the success, commenting, "I never thought I would want to do disco . [but] it's terrific! It's great music to dance to. I think that danceable music is what everybody wants." 
Encouraged by the popularity of Take Me Home, Cher planned to return to rock music in her next album, Prisoner (1979).  The album's cover features Cher draped in chains as a "prisoner of the press",  which caused controversy among feminist groups for her perceived portrayal of a sex slave.  She included rock songs, which made the disco release seem unfocused and led to its commercial failure.  Prisoner produced the single "Hell on Wheels", featured on the soundtrack of the film Roller Boogie. The song exploits the late 1970s roller-skating fad and contributed to its popularity. 
In 1980, alongside Italian record producer Giorgio Moroder, Cher wrote her last Casablanca disco recording, "Bad Love", for the film Foxes.  She formed the rock band Black Rose that year with her then-lover, guitarist Les Dudek. Although Cher was the lead singer, she did not receive top billing because she wanted to create the impression that all band members were equal. Since she was easily recognized when she performed with the band, she developed a punk look by cutting her trademark long hair. Despite appearances on television, the band failed to earn concert dates.  Their album Black Rose received unfavorable reviews Cher told Rolling Stone, "The critics panned us, and they didn't attack the record. They attacked me. It was like, 'How dare Cher sing rock & roll?'" 
Black Rose disbanded in 1981.  During Black Rose's active period, Cher was simultaneously doing a residency show at Caesars Palace in Las Vegas, earning $300,000 a week.  Titled Cher in Concert, the three-year performance residency opened in June 1979 and eventually became Cher's first world concert tour as a solo artist (also referred to as the Take Me Home Tour), with additional dates in North America, Europe, South Africa, and Australia.  It yielded two television specials: Standing Room Only: Cher in Concert (1981)  and Cher. A Celebration at Caesars (1983),  the latter of which won Cher the CableACE Award for Best Actress in a Variety Program. 
In 1981, Cher released a duet with musician Meat Loaf called "Dead Ringer for Love", which reached number five on the UK Singles Chart and was later described by AllMusic's Donald A. Guarisco as "one of the more inspired rock duets of the 1980s".  In 1982, Columbia Records released the album I Paralyze, later deemed by Bego as Cher's "strongest and most consistent solo album in years" despite its low sales. 
1982–1986: Film career breakthrough, musical hiatus
With decreasing album sales and a lack of commercially successful singles, Cher decided to further develop her acting career.  While she had previously aspired to venture into film, she had only the critically and commercially unsuccessful movies Good Times and Chastity to her credit, and the Hollywood establishment did not take her seriously as an actress.  Cher later recalled, "I was making a fortune on the road, but I was dying inside. Everyone kept saying, 'Cher, there are people who would give anything to have standing room only at Caesars Palace. It would be the pinnacle of their careers.' And I kept thinking, 'Yes, I should be satisfied' . But I wasn't satisfied."  She moved to New York in 1982 to take acting lessons with Lee Strasberg, founder of the Actors Studio, but never enrolled after her plans changed.  She auditioned for and was signed by director Robert Altman for the Broadway stage production Come Back to the Five and Dime, Jimmy Dean, Jimmy Dean, playing a member of a James Dean fan club holding a 20-year reunion. That year, Altman cast her again in the film adaptation of the same title.  Cher credits Altman for launching her acting career: "Without Bob [Robert Altman] I would have never had a film career. Everyone told him not to cast me . I am convinced that Bob was the only one who was brave enough to do it." 
Director Mike Nichols, who had seen Cher onstage in Jimmy Dean, offered her the part of Dolly Pelliker, a plant co-worker and Meryl Streep's lesbian roommate in the film Silkwood.  When it premiered in 1983, audiences questioned Cher's ability as an actress. She recalls attending a film preview during which the audience laughed when they saw her name in the credits.  For her performance, Cher received a nomination for the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress and won the Golden Globe Award for Best Supporting Actress – Motion Picture. 
In 1985, Cher formed the film production company Isis.  Her next film, Mask (1985), reached number two at the box office  and was Cher's first critical and commercial success as a leading actress.  For her role as a drug addict biker with a teenage son who has a severe physical deformity, she won the Cannes Film Festival Award for Best Actress.  During the making of the film, however, she clashed with director Peter Bogdanovich. She attended the 58th Academy Awards in a tarantula-like costume "to show her scorn for the 'system'", according to authors James Parish and Michael Pitts.  The incident garnered her much publicity. 
Cher's May 1986 guest appearance on talk show Late Night with David Letterman, during which she called Letterman "an asshole", attracted much media coverage Letterman later recalled, "It did hurt my feelings. Cher was one of the few people I've really wanted to have on the show . I felt like a total fool, especially since I say all kinds of things to people."  She returned to the show in 1987, reuniting with Sonny for the last time before his death to sing an impromptu version of "I Got You Babe". According to Rolling Stone's Andy Greene, "they weren't exactly the best of friends at this point, but both of them knew it would make for unforgettable television. Had YouTube existed back then, this would have gone insanely viral the next morning." Rolling Stone listed the performance among "David Letterman's Top 10 Musical Moments" in 2015. 
1987–1992: Film stardom, third musical comeback
Cher starred in three films in 1987.  In Suspect, she played a public defender who is both helped and romanced by one of the jurors in the homicide case she is handling. Alongside Susan Sarandon and Michelle Pfeiffer, she starred as one of three divorcees involved with a mysterious and wealthy visitor from hell who comes to a small New England town in the comedy horror The Witches of Eastwick. In Norman Jewison's romantic comedy Moonstruck, she played an Italian widow in love with her fiancé's younger brother.  The two latter films ranked among the top ten highest-grossing films of 1987, at number ten and five, respectively. 
The New York Times ' Janet Maslin wrote Moonstruck "offers further proof that Cher has evolved into the kind of larger-than-life movie star who's worth watching whatever she does."  For that film, Cher won the Academy Award for Best Actress  and the Golden Globe Award for Best Actress – Motion Picture Comedy or Musical.  By 1988, Cher had become one of the most bankable actresses of the decade, commanding $1 million per film.  That year, she released the fragrance Uninhibited, which earned about $15 million in its first year sales. 
In 1987, Cher signed with Geffen Records and revived her musical career with what music critics Johnny Danza and Dean Ferguson describe as "her most impressive string of hits to date", establishing her as a "serious rock and roller . a crown that she'd worked long and hard to capture".  Michael Bolton, Jon Bon Jovi, Desmond Child, and Richie Sambora produced her first Geffen album, Cher.  Despite facing strong retail and radio airplay resistance upon its release,  the album proved to be a commercial success, certified platinum by the RIAA.  Cher features the rock ballad "I Found Someone", Cher's first US top-ten single in more than eight years. 
By the end of the 1980s, Cher was also receiving attention for her controversial lifestyle, including her tattoos, plastic surgeries, exhibitionist fashion sense, and affairs with younger men.  She had romantic relationships with actors Val Kilmer, Eric Stoltz, and Tom Cruise, hockey player Ron Duguay, film producer Josh Donen, Bon Jovi guitarist Richie Sambora, and Rob Camilletti, a bagel baker 18-years her junior whom she dated from 1986 to 1989. 
Cher's 19th studio album Heart of Stone (1989) was certified triple platinum by the RIAA.  The music video for its second single, "If I Could Turn Back Time",  caused controversy due to Cher's performance on the battleship USS Missouri, straddling a cannon,  and wearing a leather thong that revealed her tattooed buttocks.  The song topped the Australian charts for seven weeks,  reached number three on the Billboard Hot 100 chart and became one of Cher's most successful singles.  Other songs from Heart of Stone to reach the US top ten were "After All", a duet with Peter Cetera, and "Just Like Jesse James".  At the 1989 People's Choice Awards, Cher won the Favorite All-Around Female Star Award.  She embarked on the Heart of Stone Tour in 1989.  Most critics liked the tour's nostalgic nature and admired Cher's showmanship.  Its parent television special Cher at the Mirage (1991) was filmed during a concert in Las Vegas. 
In her first film in three years, Mermaids (1990), Cher paid tribute to her own mother in this story about a woman who moves her two daughters from town to town at the end of a love affair.  She clashed with the film's first two directors, Lasse Hallström and Frank Oz, who were replaced by Richard Benjamin.  Believing Cher would be the star attraction, the producers allowed her creative control for the film.  Mermaids was a box office success and received generally positive reviews.   One of the two songs Cher recorded for the film's soundtrack, a cover version of Betty Everett's "The Shoop Shoop Song (It's in His Kiss)", topped the UK Singles Chart for five weeks.  
Cher's final studio album for Geffen Records, Love Hurts (1991),  stayed at number one in the UK for six weeks and produced the UK top-ten single "Love and Understanding".  The album was certified gold by the RIAA.  In later years, Cher commented that her Geffen label "hit years" had been especially significant to her, "because I was getting to do songs that I really loved . songs that really represented me, and they were popular!"  She released the exercise book Forever Fit in 1991,  followed by the 1992 fitness videos CherFitness: A New Attitude and CherFitness: Body Confidence.  She embarked on the Love Hurts Tour during 1992.  That year, the UK-only  compilation album Greatest Hits: 1965–1992 peaked at number one in the country for seven weeks.  It features three new songs: "Oh No Not My Baby", "Whenever You're Near", and "Many Rivers to Cross". 
1992–1997: Health and professional struggles, directorial debut
Partially due to her experiences filming Mermaids, Cher turned down leading roles in such films as The War of the Roses and Thelma & Louise.  According to Berman, "After the success of Moonstruck, she was so worried about her next career move that she was overly cautious."  In the early 1990s, she contracted the Epstein–Barr virus  and developed chronic fatigue syndrome, which left her too exhausted to sustain her music and film careers.  Because she needed to earn money and was not healthy enough to work on other projects, she starred in infomercials launching health, beauty, and diet products,  which earned her close to $10 million in fees.  The skits were parodied on Saturday Night Live  and critics considered them a sellout,  many suggesting her film career was over.  She told Ladies' Home Journal, "Suddenly I became the Infomercial Queen and it didn't occur to me that people would focus on that and strip me of all my other things." 
Cher made cameo appearances in the Robert Altman films The Player (1992) and Prêt-à-Porter (1994).  In 1994, she started a mail-order catalogue business, Sanctuary, selling Gothic-themed products,  and contributed a rock version of "I Got You Babe" to MTV's animated series Beavis and Butt-head.  Alongside Chrissie Hynde, Neneh Cherry, and Eric Clapton, she topped the UK Singles Chart in 1995 with the charity single "Love Can Build a Bridge".  Later that year, she signed with Warner Music UK's label WEA and released the album It's a Man's World (1995), which came out of her idea of covering men's songs from a woman's point of view.  In general, critics favored the album and its R&B influences, some saying her voice had improved.  Stephen Holden of The New York Times wrote that "From an artistic standpoint, this soulful collection of grown-up pop songs . is the high point of her recording career."  It's a Man's World reached number 10 on the UK Albums Chart and spawned the UK top-ten single "One by One".  Tracks were remixed for the American release of the album, abandoning its original rock sound in favor of a style more accessible to US radio.  The US release failed commercially, reaching number 64 on the Billboard 200. 
In 1996, Cher played the wife of a businessman who hires a hitman to murder her in the Chazz Palminteri-scripted dark comedy film Faithful. Although the film received negative reviews from critics, Cher was praised for her role  The New York Times ' Janet Maslin wrote that she "does her game best to find comic potential in a victim's role."  Cher refused to promote the film, claiming it was "horrible".  She made her directorial debut with a segment in the abortion-themed anthology If These Walls Could Talk (1996), in which she starred as a doctor murdered by an anti-abortion fanatic.  It drew the highest ratings for an original HBO movie to date, registering an 18.7 rating with a 25 share in HBO homes and attracting 6.9 million viewers.   Her music played a large role in the American TV series The X-Files episode "The Post-Modern Prometheus", which aired in November 1997.  Written for her,  it tells the story of a scientist's grotesque creature who adores Cher because of her role in Mask, in which her character cares for her disfigured son. 
1998–1999: Death of Sonny Bono, fourth musical comeback
Following Sonny Bono's death in a skiing accident in 1998, Cher delivered a tearful eulogy at his funeral, calling him "the most unforgettable character" she had met.  She paid tribute to him by hosting the CBS special Sonny & Me: Cher Remembers, which aired on May 20, 1998.  That month, Sonny and Cher received a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame for Television.  Later that year, Cher published The First Time, a collection of autobiographical essays of "first-time" events in her life, which critics praised as down-to-earth and genuine.  Although the manuscript was almost finished when Sonny died, she could not decide whether to include his death in the book she feared being criticized for capitalizing on the event. She told Rolling Stone, "I couldn't ignore it, could I? I might have if I cared more about what people think than what I know is right for me." 
Cher's 22nd studio album Believe (1998) marked a musical departure for her, as it comprises dance-pop songs, many of which capture the "disco-era essence" Cher said, "It's not that I think this is a '70s album . but there's a thread, a consistency running through it that I love.'"  Believe was certified quadruple platinum by the RIAA  and went on to be certified gold or platinum in 39 countries,  selling 10 million copies worldwide.  The album's title track reached number one in more than 23 countries and sold over 10 million copies worldwide.   It became the best-selling recording of 1998 and 1999, respectively, in the UK  and the US,  and Cher's most successful single to date.  "Believe" topped the UK Singles Chart for seven weeks and became the biggest-selling single of all time by a female artist in the UK, selling over 1.84 million copies in the country up until October 2018.  It also topped the Billboard Hot 100 chart for four weeks,  selling over 1.8 million units in the US up until December 1999.  The song earned Cher the Grammy Award for Best Dance Recording  and the 1999 Billboard Music Award for Hot 100 Single of the Year. 
On January 31, 1999, Cher performed "The Star-Spangled Banner" at the Super Bowl XXXIII.  Two months later, she sang on the television special VH1 Divas Live 2, which attracted 19.4 million viewers.  According to VH1, it was the most popular, and most watched program in the television network's history, as Cher's presence was "a huge part of making it exactly that."  Capitalizing on the success of "Believe", Cher's former record company Geffen Records released the compilation album If I Could Turn Back Time: Cher's Greatest Hits (1999), which features the previously unreleased song "Don't Come Cryin' to Me".  It was certified gold by the RIAA.  The Do You Believe? tour ran from 1999 to 2000 and was sold out in every American city in which it was booked,  amassing a global audience of more than 1.5 million.  Its companion television special, Cher: Live in Concert – From the MGM Grand in Las Vegas (1999), was the highest rated original HBO program in 1998–99,  registering a 9.0 rating among adults 18 to 49 and a 13.0 rating in the HBO universe of about 33 million homes.  In November 1999, Cher released the compilation album The Greatest Hits, which sold three million copies outside of the US up until January 2000. 
Cher was named the number-one dance artist of 1999 by Billboard.  At the 1999 World Music Awards, she received the Legend Award for her "lifelong contribution to the music industry".  Her next film, Franco Zeffirelli's Tea with Mussolini (1999),  received generally positive reviews,  and she earned critical acclaim for her performance as a rich, flamboyant American socialite whose visit to Italy is not welcome among the Englishwomen one reviewer from Film Comment wrote, "It is only after she appears that you realize how sorely she's been missed from movie screens! For Cher is a star. That is, she manages the movie star trick of being at once a character and at the same time never allowing you to forget: that's Cher." 
2000–2009: Touring success, retirement, Vegas residency
Not.com.mercial (2000) was written mostly by Cher after she had attended a songwriters' conference in 1994 it marked her first attempt at writing most of the tracks for an album. As the album was rejected by her record label for being uncommercial, she chose to sell it only on her website. In the song "Sisters of Mercy", she criticized as "cruel, heartless and wicked" the nuns who prevented her mother from retrieving her from a Catholic orphanage. The Catholic church denounced the song. 
Cher's highly anticipated dance-oriented follow-up to Believe,  Living Proof (2001), entered the Billboard 200 at number nine  and was certified gold by the RIAA.  The album includes the UK top-ten single "The Music's No Good Without You"  and "Song for the Lonely", the latter song dedicated to "the courageous people of New York" following the September 11 attacks.  In May 2002, she performed during the benefit concert VH1 Divas Las Vegas.  At the 2002 Billboard Music Awards, she won the Dance/Club Play Artist of the Year Award and was presented with the Artist Achievement Award by Steven Tyler for having "helped redefine popular music with massive success on the Billboard charts".   That year, her wealth was estimated at $600 million. 
In June 2002, Cher embarked on the Living Proof: The Farewell Tour,  announced as the final live concert tour of her career, although she vowed to continue making records and films.  The show highlighted her successes in music, television, and film, featuring video clips from the 1960s onwards and an elaborate backdrop and stage set-up. 
Initially scheduled for 49 shows,  the worldwide tour was extended several times. By October 2003, it had become the most successful tour ever by a woman, grossing $145 million from 200 shows and playing to 2.2 million fans.  A collection of live tracks taken from the tour was released in 2003 as the album Live! The Farewell Tour.  The NBC special Cher – The Farewell Tour (2003) attracted 17 million viewers.  It was the highest rated network-TV concert special of 2003  and earned Cher the Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Variety, Music, or Comedy Special. 
After leaving Warner UK in 2002, Cher signed a worldwide deal with the US division of Warner Bros. Records in September 2003.  The Very Best of Cher (2003), a greatest-hits collection that surveys her entire career, peaked at number four on the Billboard 200  and was certified double platinum by the RIAA.  She played herself in the Farrelly brothers comedy Stuck on You (2003), mocking her public image as she appears in bed with a much younger boyfriend. 
Cher's 326-date Farewell Tour ended in 2005 as one of the highest-grossing concert tours of all time, seen by over 3.5 million fans and earning $250 million.  After three years of retirement,  she began in 2008 a three-year, 200-performance residency at the Colosseum at Caesars Palace, Las Vegas, for which she earned a reported $60 million.  Titled Cher, the production featured state-of-the-art video and special effects, elaborate set designs,  14 dancers, four aerialists and more than 20 costume changes. 
2010–2017: Burlesque, return to music and touring
In Burlesque (2010), Cher's first musical film since 1967's Good Times, the actress plays a nightclub impresario whom a young Hollywood hopeful is looking to impress. One of the two songs she recorded for the film's soundtrack, the power ballad "You Haven't Seen the Last of Me",  reached number one on the Billboard Dance Club Songs chart in January 2011, making Cher the only artist to date to have a number-one single on a Billboard chart in six consecutive decades, from the 1960s to the 2010s.  In November 2010, she received the honor of placing her handprints and footprints in cement in the courtyard in front of Grauman's Chinese Theatre in Hollywood.  The next year, she lent her voice to Janet the Lioness in the comedy Zookeeper.  Dear Mom, Love Cher, a documentary she produced about her mother Georgia Holt, aired on Lifetime in May 2013. 
Closer to the Truth, Cher's 25th studio album and the first since 2001's Living Proof, entered the Billboard 200 at number three in October 2013, her highest position on that chart to date.  Michael Andor Brodeur of The Boston Globe commented that "Cher's 'Goddess of Pop' sash remains in little danger of undue snatching at 67, she sounds more convincing than J-Lo or Madonna reporting from 'the club'".  Cher premiered the lead single "Woman's World" on the season four finale of the talent show The Voice, her first live TV performance in over a decade.  She later joined the show's season five as judge Blake Shelton's team adviser. 
On June 30, 2013, Cher headlined the annual Dance on the Pier benefit, celebrating Gay Pride day. It became the event's first sellout in five years.  In November 2013, she appeared as a guest performer and judge on the seventeenth season of ABC's Dancing with the Stars, during its eighth week, which was dedicated to her.  She embarked on the Dressed to Kill Tour in March 2014, nearly a decade after announcing her "farewell tour".  She quipped about that fact during the shows, saying this would actually be her last farewell tour while crossing fingers.  The tour's first leg, which included 49 sold-out shows in North America, grossed $54.9 million.  In November 2014, she cancelled all remaining dates due to an infection that affected kidney function. 
On May 7, 2014, Cher confirmed a collaboration with American hip hop group Wu-Tang Clan on their album Once Upon a Time in Shaolin. Credited as Bonnie Jo Mason, she uses an alias of hers originated in 1964.  Only one copy of the album has been produced, and it was sold by online auction in November 2015.  It is the most expensive single album ever sold.  After appearing as Marc Jacobs' guest at the 2015 Met Gala, Cher posed for his brand's fall/winter advertising campaign.  The fashion designer stated, "This has been a dream of mine for a very, very long time." 
Classic Cher, a three-year concert residency at both the Park Theater at Monte Carlo Resort and Casino, Las Vegas, and The Theater at MGM National Harbor, Washington, opened in February 2017.  At the 2017 Billboard Music Awards, Cher performed "Believe" and "If I Could Turn Back Time", her first awards show performance in more than 15 years, and was presented with the Billboard Icon Award by Gwen Stefani, who called her "a role model for showing us how to be strong and true to ourselves [and] the definition of the word Icon." 
2018–present: Return to film, Dancing Queen, upcoming projects
In 2018, Cher returned to film for the romantic musical comedy film Mamma Mia! Here We Go Again. New York magazine's Viviana Olen and Matt Harkins commented that "it's only at the climax of the movie when its true promise is fulfilled: Cher arrives . It becomes clear that every single movie—no matter how flawless—would be infinitely better if it included Cher."  She stars as Ruby Sheridan, who is the grandmother of Sophie, played by Amanda Seyfried, and the mother of Donna, portrayed by Meryl Streep.  Cher recorded two ABBA songs for the film's soundtrack: "Fernando" and "Super Trouper".  Björn Ulvaeus of ABBA commented, "She makes Fernando her own. It's her song now." 
On March 4, 2018, Cher headlined the 40th Sydney Gay and Lesbian Mardi Gras. Tickets sold out within three hours after she hinted her performance on her Twitter account.  In September 2018, Cher embarked on the Here We Go Again Tour. 
While promoting Mamma Mia! Here We Go Again, Cher confirmed she was working on an album that would feature cover versions of songs from ABBA.  The album, Dancing Queen, was released on September 28, 2018.  Brittany Spanos from Rolling Stone commented that "the 72-year-old makes ABBA songs not only sound like they should've been written for her in the first place but like they firmly belong in 2018".  Marc Snetiker from Entertainment Weekly called it Cher's "most significant release since 1998's Believe" and noted that "the album ender, 'One of Us', is frankly one of Cher's best recordings in years."  Dancing Queen debuted at number three on the Billboard 200, tying with 2013's Closer to the Truth for Cher's highest-charting solo album in the US. With first-week sales of 153,000 units, it earned the year's biggest sales week for a pop album by a female artist, as well as Cher's largest sales week since 1991. Dancing Queen also topped Billboard ' s Top Album Sales chart, making it Cher's first number-one album on that chart. 
The Cher Show, a jukebox musical based on Cher's life and music, officially premiered at the Oriental Theatre in Chicago, on June 28, 2018, and played through July 15.  It began Broadway previews November 1, with its official opening on December 3, 2018. Written by Rick Elice, it features three actresses playing Cher during different stages of her life.  The Cher Show is set to launch a US tour in 2021 after being postponed due to the COVID-19 pandemic. 
On December 2, 2018, Cher received a Kennedy Center Honors prize, the annual Washington distinction for artists who have made extraordinary contributions to culture.  The ceremony featured tribute performances by Cyndi Lauper, Little Big Town and Adam Lambert.  During 2018, Cher used Twitter to announce she was working on four new projects for the next two years: a Christmas album  a second album of ABBA covers  an autobiography  and a biographical film about her life. 
In October 2019, Cher launched a new perfume, Cher Eau de Couture, which was four years in the making. Described as "genderless", it is Cher's second fragrance after 1987's Uninhibited.  On February 4, 2020, Cher was announced as the new face of fashion brand Dsquared2.  She starred in the brand's spring/summer advertising campaign, which was directed by photographers Mert and Marcus.  In May, Cher released her first Spanish-language song, a cover of ABBA's "Chiquitita". Proceeds from the single were donated to UNICEF following the COVID-19 pandemic.  In November, Cher spawned a UK top-ten single as part of the charity supergroup BBC Radio 2 Allstars with "Stop Crying Your Heart Out", an Oasis cover recorded in support of BBC's Children in Need charity.  
Cher appeared in a voice-over role as a bobblehead version of herself in the animated feature film Bobbleheads: The Movie (2020).  The same year, she was featured on The New York Times Magazine ' s list of "The Best Actors of 2020",  the first time an actor not in a current-year theatrical release made it on the annual list  film critics Wesley Morris and A. O. Scott commented, "Cher's radiant performance in Moonstruck warmed us in quarantine." 
Music and voice
Cher has employed various musical styles, including folk rock, pop rock, power ballads, disco, new wave music, rock music, punk rock, arena rock, and hip hop  she said she has done this to "remain relevant and do work that strikes a chord".  Her music has mainly dealt with themes of heartbreak, independence, and self-empowerment for women by doing so, she became "a brokenhearted symbol of a strong but decidedly single woman", according to Out magazine's Judy Wieder.  Goldmine magazine's Phill Marder credited Cher's "nearly flawless" song selection as what made her a notorious rock singer while several of her early songs were penned by or sung with Sonny Bono, most of her solo successes, which outnumbered Sonny and Cher's successes, were composed by independent songwriters, selected by Cher.  Not.com.mercial (2000), Cher's first album mostly written by herself, presents a "1970s singer-songwriter feel" that proves "Cher adept in the role of storyteller", according to AllMusic's Jose F. Promis. 
Robert Hilburn of the Los Angeles Times writes, "There were a lot of great records by female singers in the early days of rock . None, however, reflected the authority and command that we associate with rock 'n' roll today as much as [Cher's] key early hits".  Some of Cher's early songs discuss subjects rarely addressed in American popular music such as divorce, prostitution, unplanned and underaged pregnancy, and racism.  According to AllMusic's Joe Viglione, the 1972 single "The Way of Love" is "either about a woman expressing her love for another woman, or a woman saying au revoir to a gay male she loved" ("What will you do/When he sets you free/Just the way that you/Said good-bye to me"). Her ability to carry both male and female ranges allowed her to sing solo in androgynous and gender-neutral songs. 
Cher has a contralto singing voice,  described by author Nicholas E. Tawa as "bold, deep, and with a spacious vibrato".  Ann Powers of The New York Times called it "a quintessential rock voice: impure, quirky, a fine vehicle for projecting personality."  AllMusic's Bruce Eder wrote that the "tremendous intensity and passion" of Cher's vocals coupled with her "ability to meld that projection with her acting skills" can provide "an incredibly powerful experience for the listener."  The Guardian 's Laura Snapes described her voice as "miraculous . capable of conveying vulnerability, vengeance and pain all at once".  Paul Simpson, in his book The Rough Guide to Cult Pop (2003), posits that "Cher [is] the possessor of one of the huskiest, most distinctive voices in pop . which can work wonders with the right material directed by the right producer".  He further addresses the believability of her vocal performances: "she spits out the words . with such conviction you'd think she was delivering an eternal truth about the human condition". 
Writing about Cher's musical output during the 1960s, Robert Hilburn of the Los Angeles Times stated that "Rock was subsequently blessed with the staggering blues exclamations of Janis Joplin in the late '60s and the raw poetic force of Patti Smith in the mid-'70s. Yet no one matched the pure, seductive wallop of Cher".  By contrast, her vocal performances during the 1970s were described by Eder as "dramatic, highly intense . [and] almost as much 'acted' as sung".  First heard in the 1980 record Black Rose,  Cher employed sharper, more aggressive vocals on her hard rock-oriented albums, establishing her sexually confident image.  For the 1995 album It's a Man's World, she restrained her vocals, singing in higher registers and without vibrato. 
The 1998 song "Believe" has an electronic vocal effect proposed by Cher,  and was the first commercial recording to feature Auto-Tune—an audio processor originally intended to disguise or correct off-key inaccuracies in vocal music recordings—as a deliberate creative effect. According to Rolling Stone 's Christopher R. Weingarten, the "producers . used the pitch correction software not as a way to fix mistakes in Cher's iconic voice, but as an aesthetic tool."  After the success of the song, the technique became known as the "Cher effect"  and has since been widely used in popular music.  Cher continued to use Auto-Tune on the albums Living Proof (2001),  Closer to the Truth (2013),  and Dancing Queen (2018). 
In a 2013 interview with the Toronto Sun, Cher reflected on how her voice has evolved throughout her career, becoming stronger and suppler over the years. She said working with vocal coaches had made a significant difference: "It's so freaky because people my age are having to lose notes and I'm gaining notes, so that's pretty shocking." 
Films, videos, and stage
Maclean's magazine's Barbara Wickens wrote, "Cher has emerged as probably the most fascinating movie star of her generation . [because] she has managed to be at once boldly shocking and ultimately enigmatic."  New York Post movie critic David Edelstein attributes Cher's "top-ranking star quality" to her ability of projecting "honesty, rawness and emotionality. She wears her vulnerability on her sleeve."  Jeff Yarbrough of The Advocate wrote that Cher was "one of the first superstars to 'play gay' with compassion and without a hint of stereotyping", as she portrays a lesbian in the 1983 film Silkwood. 
Author Yvonne Tasker, in her book Working Girls: Gender and Sexuality in Popular Cinema (2002), notes that Cher's film roles often mirrors her public image as a rebellious, sexually autonomous, and self-made woman.  In her films, she recurrently serves as a social intermediary to disenfranchised male characters, such as Eric Stoltz's Craniodiaphyseal dysplasia victim in Mask (1985), Liam Neeson's mute homeless veteran in Suspect (1987), and Nicolas Cage's socially isolated baker with a wooden hand in Moonstruck (1987).  Film critic Kathleen Rowe wrote of Moonstruck that the depiction of Cher's character as "a 'woman on top' [is] enhanced by the unruly star persona Cher brings to the part'". 
For Moonstruck, Cher was ranked 1st on Billboard ' s list of "The 100 Best Acting Performances by Musicians in Movies", and her performance was described as "the standard by which you mentally check all others".  Moonstruck was acknowledged by the American Film Institute as the eighth best romantic comedy film of all time. 
Cher's public image is also reflected in her music videos and live performances, in which she "repeatedly comments on her own construction, on her search for perfection and on the performance of the female body", wrote Tasker.  Unlike other acts of that time, who often featured female backers mimicking the singer's performance, Cher uses a male dancer dressed as her in the 1992 concert video Cher at the Mirage  author Diane Negra commented, "In authorizing her own quotation, Cher acknowledges herself as fictionalized production, and proffers to her audience a pleasurable plurality."  James Sullivan of the San Francisco Chronicle wrote that "Cher is well aware that her chameleonic glitz set the stage for the current era of stadium-size razzle-dazzle. She's comfortable enough to see such imitation as flattery, not theft."  American singer Pink, who is recognized by her acrobatic stage presence, started studying Aerial silks after watching Cher's Living Proof: The Farewell Tour in 2004. 
Cher was ranked 17th on VH1's list of the "50 Greatest Women of the Video Era".  The 1980 video for "Hell on Wheels" involves cinematic techniques  and was one of the first music videos ever.  Deemed "controversial" for her performance on the battleship USS Missouri, straddling a cannon,  and wearing a leather thong that revealed her tattooed buttocks,  the 1989 music video for "If I Could Turn Back Time" was the first ever to be banned by MTV. 
Time magazine's Cady Lang described Cher as a "cultural phenomenon [who] has forever changed the way we see celebrity fashion."  Cher emerged as a fashion trendsetter in the 1960s, popularizing "hippie fashion with bell-bottoms, bandanas, and Cherokee-inspired tunics".  She began working as a model in 1967 for photographer Richard Avedon after then-Vogue magazine editor Diana Vreeland discovered her at a party for Jacqueline Kennedy that year.  Avedon took the controversial photo of Cher in a beaded and feathered nude gown designed by Bob Mackie for the cover of Time magazine in 1975  Billboard magazine's Brooke Mazurek described it as "one of the most recreated and monumental looks of all time."  Cher first wore the gown to the 1974 Met Gala. According to Vogue magazine's André Leon Talley, "it was really the first time a Hollywood celebrity attended, and it changed everything. We are still seeing versions of that look on The Met red carpet 40 years later."  Billboard wrote that Cher has "transformed fashion and [become] one of the most influential style icons in red carpet history". 
Through her 1970s television shows, Cher became a sex symbol with her inventive and revealing Mackie-designed outfits, and fought the network censors to bare her navel.  Although Cher has been erroneously attributed to being the first woman to expose her navel on television (e.g. Nichelle Nichols, BarBara Luna and Diana Ewing in the 1960s TV series Star Trek),  she was the most prominent to do so  since the establishment of the American Code of Practices for Television Broadcasters in 1951,  which prompted network censors to ban navel exposure on US television.  People dubbed Cher the "pioneer of the belly beautiful".  In 1972, after she was featured on the annual "Best Dressed Women" lists, Mackie stated: "There hasn't been a girl like Cher since Dietrich and Garbo. She's a high-fashion star who appeals to people of all ages." 
In May 1999, after the Council of Fashion Designers of America recognized Cher with an award for her influence on fashion, Robin Givhan of the Los Angeles Times called her a "fashion visionary" for "striking just the right note of contemporary wretched excess".  Givhan referenced Tom Ford, Anna Sui and Dolce & Gabbana as "[i]nfluential designers [who] have evoked her name as a source of inspiration and guidance."  She concluded that "Cher's Native American showgirl sexpot persona now seems to epitomize the fashion industry's rush to celebrate ethnicity, adornment and sex appeal."  Vogue proclaimed Cher "[their] favorite fashion trendsetter" and wrote that "[she] set the grounds for pop stars and celebrities today", describing her as "[e]ternally relevant [and] the ruler of outré reinvention".  Alexander Fury of The Independent lauded Cher as "the ultimate fashion icon" and traced her influence among female celebrities such as Beyoncé, Jennifer Lopez, and Kim Kardashian, stating that "[t]hey all graduated from the Cher school of never sharing the stage, with anyone, or anything . They're trying to share the spotlight, to have Cher's success." 
Cher has attracted media attention for her physical appearance—particularly her youthful looks and her tattoos. Journalists have often called her the "poster girl" of plastic surgery.  Author Grant McCracken, in his book Transformations: Identity Construction in Contemporary Culture (2008), draws a parallel between Cher's plastic surgeries and the transformations in her career: "Her plastic surgery is not merely cosmetic. It is hyperbolic, extreme, over the top . Cher has engaged in a transformational technology that is dramatic and irreversible."  Caroline Ramazanoglu, author of Up Against Foucault: Explorations of Some Tensions Between Foucault and Feminism (1993), wrote that "Cher's operations have gradually replaced a strong, decidedly 'ethnic' look with a more symmetrical, delicate, 'conventional' . and ever-youthful version of female beauty . Her normalised image . now acts as a standard against which other women will measure, judge, discipline and 'correct' themselves." 
Cher has six tattoos. The Baltimore Sun called her the "Ms. Original Rose Tattoo".  She got her first tattoo in 1972.  According to Sonny Bono, "Calling her butterfly tattoos nothing was like ignoring a sandstorm in the Mojave. That was exactly the effect Cher wanted to create. She liked to do things for the shock they created. She still does. She'll create some controversy and then tell her critics to stick it."  In the late 1990s, she began having laser treatments to remove her tattoos.  The process was still underway in the 2000s. She commented, "When I got tattooed, only bad girls did it: me and Janis Joplin and biker chicks. Now it doesn't mean anything. No one's surprised." 
In 1992, Madame Tussauds wax museum honored Cher as one of the five "most beautiful women of history" by creating a life-size statue.  She was ranked 26th on VH1's list of the "100 Sexiest Artists" published in 2002. 
Cher was the inspiration for Mother Gothel, a fictional character who appears in Walt Disney Pictures' animated feature film Tangled (2010). Director Byron Howard explained that Gothel's exotic appearance, whose beauty, dark curly hair and voluptuous figure were deliberately designed to serve as a foil to Rapunzel's, was based on Cher's "exotic and Gothic looking" appearance, continuing that the singer "definitely was one of the people we looked at visually, as far as what gives you a striking character." 
Cher's social media presence has drawn analysis from journalists.  Time named her "Twitter's most outspoken (and beloved) commentator".  The New York Times writer Jenna Wortham commended Cher on her social media usage, stating, "Most celebrities' social-media feeds feel painfully self-aware and thirsty . In her own way, Cher is an outlier, perhaps the last unreconstructed high-profile Twitter user to stand at her digital pulpit and yell (somewhat) incomprehensibly, and be rewarded for it. Online, authenticity and originality are often carefully curated myths. Cher thrives on a version of nakedness and honesty that is rarely celebrated in the public eye."  Monica Heisey of The Guardian described Cher's Twitter account as "a jewel in the bizarro crown of the internet", and remarked, "While many celebrities use Twitter for carefully crafted self-promotion, Cher just lets it all hang out." 
As a gay icon
The reverence held for Cher by members of the LGBT community has been attributed to her career accomplishments, her sense of style, and her longevity.  Cher is considered a gay icon, and has often been imitated by drag queens.  According to Salon magazine's Thomas Rogers, "[d]rag queens imitate women like Judy Garland, Dolly Parton and Cher because they overcame insult and hardship on their path to success, and because their narratives mirror the pain that many gay men suffer on their way out of the closet."  According to Maclean's magazine's Elio Iannacci, Cher was "one of the first to bring drag to the masses", as she hired two drag queens to perform with her at her Las Vegas residency in 1979.  Cher's role as a lesbian in the film Silkwood, as well as her transition to dance music and social activism, have further contributed to her becoming a gay icon.  The NBC sitcom Will & Grace acknowledged Cher's status by making her the idol of gay character Jack McFarland. Cher guest-starred as herself twice on the show, in 2000—making the episode "Gypsies, Tramps and Weed" (named after her 1971 song "Gypsys, Tramps & Thieves") Will & Grace ' s second-highest rating ever—  and 2002. 
Cher's primary philanthropic endeavors have included support of health research and patients' quality of life, anti-poverty initiatives, veterans rights, and vulnerable children.  The Cher Charitable Foundation supports international projects such as the Intrepid Fallen Heroes Fund, Operation Helmet, and the Children's Craniofacial Association. 
Beginning in 1990, Cher served as a donor and as the National Chairperson and Honorary Spokesperson for the Children's Craniofacial Association, whose mission is to "empower and give hope to facially disfigured children and their families".  The annual Cher's Family Retreat is held each June to provide craniofacial patients, their siblings and parents an opportunity to interact with others who have endured similar experiences. She supports and promotes Get A-Head Charitable Trust, which aims to improve the quality of life for people with head and neck diseases. 
Cher is a donor, fundraiser, and international spokesperson for Keep a Child Alive, an organization that seeks to accelerate action to combat the AIDS pandemic, including the provision of antiretroviral medicine to children and their families with HIV/AIDS.  In 1996, she hosted the American Foundation for AIDS Research (amfAR) Benefit alongside Elizabeth Taylor at the Cannes Film Festival.  In 2015, she received the amfAR Award of Inspiration for "her willingness and ability to use her fame for the greater good" and for being "one of the great champions in the fight against AIDS". 
In 2007, Cher became the primary supporter of the Peace Village School (PVS) in Ukunda, Kenya, which "provides nutritious food, medical care, education and extracurricular activities for more than 300 orphans and vulnerable children, ages 2 to 13 years."  Her support enabled the school to acquire land and build permanent housing and school facilities, and in partnership with Malaria No More and other organizations, she piloted an effort to eliminate malaria mortality and morbidity for the children, their caregivers and the surrounding community. 
Soldiers and veterans
Cher has been a vocal supporter of American soldiers and returning veterans. She has contributed resources to Operation Helmet, an organization that provides free helmet upgrade kits to troops in Iraq and Afghanistan. She has contributed to the Intrepid Fallen Heroes Fund, which serves military personnel who have been disabled in operations in Iraq and Afghanistan, and those severely injured in other operations.  In 1993, she participated in a humanitarian effort in Armenia, taking food and medical supplies to the war-torn region. 
Cher has engaged in the construction of houses with Habitat for Humanity and served as the Honorary National Chair of a Habitat's elimination of poverty housing initiative "Raise the Roof", an effort to engage artists in the organization's work while on tour. 
In 2016, after the discovery of lead contamination in the drinking water of Flint, Michigan, Cher donated more than 180,000 bottles of water to the city as part of a partnership with Icelandic Glacial.  The next year, Cher weighed in on the need to protect elder rights as she executive produced Edith+Eddie, a documentary about a nonagenarian interracial couple. It received a nomination for the Academy Award for Best Documentary (Short Subject). 
Following the COVID-19 outbreak in 2020, Cher launched the CherCares Pandemic Resource and Response Initiative (CCPRRI) alongside Dr. Irwin Redlener, the head of Columbia University's Pandemic Resource and Response Center. The charity's initial plan is to distribute $1 million to "chronically neglected and forgotten people" during the pandemic through the Entertainment Industry Foundation (EIF). Cher told Billboard, "There are rural areas where people of color and Latinos and Native Americans were getting no services. It's not a lot of money — $1 million goes in the blink of an eyelash! — so now I'm trying to get my friends to make it a lot more so we can do something that will really meet people's needs. A friend once told me, 'When people walk in your path, then you know what you have to do.'" 
In November 2020, Cher joined Four Paws International and traveled to Pakistan to advocate for and work with the country's government to have Kaavan, an elephant who had been confined to a zoo for 35 years, transferred to a sanctuary in Cambodia. 
Cher's older child, Chaz Bono, first came out as a lesbian at age 17, which reportedly caused Cher to feel "guilt, fear and pain".  However, she soon came to accept Chaz's sexual orientation, and came to the conclusion that LGBT people "didn't have the same rights as everyone else, [and she] thought that was unfair".  She was the keynote speaker for the 1997 national Parents, Families, & Friends of Lesbians and Gays (PFLAG) convention, and has since become one of the LGBT community's most vocal advocates.  In May 1998, she received the GLAAD Vanguard Award for having "made a significant difference in promoting equal rights for lesbians and gay men".  On June 11, 2009, Chaz came out as a transgender man, and his transition from female to male was legally finalized on May 6, 2010. 
Cher has said that she is not a registered Democrat, but has attended many Democratic conventions and events.  Over the years, Cher's political views have attracted media attention, and she has been an outspoken critic of the conservative movement. In an interview with Vanity Fair, she was critical of a variety of political topics, including Republican politicians like Sarah Palin and Jan Brewer.  She has commented that she did not understand why anyone would be a Republican because eight years under the administration of George W. Bush "almost killed [her]". 
During the 2000 United States presidential election, ABC News wrote that she was determined to do "whatever possible to keep him [Bush] out of office".  She told the site, "If you're black in this country if you're a woman in this country, if you are any minority in this country at all, what could possibly possess you to vote Republican? . You won't have one fucking right left."  She added, "I don't like Bush. I don't trust him. I don't like his record. He's stupid. He's lazy." 
On October 27, 2003, Cher anonymously called a C-SPAN phone-in program to recount a visit she made to maimed soldiers at the Walter Reed Army Medical Center and criticized the lack of media coverage and government attention given to injured servicemen. She remarked that she watches C-SPAN every day. Although she identified herself as an unnamed entertainer, she was recognized by the C-SPAN host, who subsequently questioned her about her 1992 support for independent presidential candidate Ross Perot. She said, "When I heard him talk right in the beginning, I thought that he would bring some sort of common-sense business approach and also less partisanship, but then . I was completely disappointed like everyone else when he just kind of cut and run and no one knew exactly why . Maybe he couldn't have withstood all the investigation that goes on now". 
On Memorial Day weekend in 2006, Cher called into C-SPAN's Washington Journal endorsing Operation Helmet, a group that provides helmets to help soldiers avoid head injuries while in the war zone.  On June 14, 2006, she made a guest appearance on C-SPAN with Dr. Bob Meaders, the founder of Operation Helmet.  That year, in an interview with Stars and Stripes, she explained her "against the war in Iraq but for the troops" position: "I don't have to be for this war to support the troops because these men and women do what they think is right. They do what they're told to do. They do it with a really good heart. They do the best they can. They don't ask for anything." 
Cher supported Hillary Clinton in her 2008 presidential campaign.  After Obama won the Democratic nomination, she supported his candidacy on radio  and TV programs.  However, in a 2010 interview with Vanity Fair, she commented that she "still thinks Hillary would have done a better job", although she "accepts the fact that Barack Obama inherited insurmountable problems".  During the 2012 United States presidential election, Cher and comedian Kathy Griffin released a public service announcement titled "Don't Let Mitt Turn Back Time on Women's Rights". In the PSA, the pair criticized Republican presidential nominee Mitt Romney for his support of Richard Mourdock, the US Senate candidate who suggested that pregnancies resulting from rape were "part of God's plan". 
In September 2013, Cher declined an invitation to perform at the 2014 Winter Olympics opening ceremony in Russia due to the country's controversial anti-gay legislation that overshadowed preparations for the event.  In June 2015, after Donald Trump announced his candidacy for president, she made a series of critical comments on Twitter, stating that "Donald Trump's punishment is being Donald Trump".  In October 2018, after the victory in Brazil's presidential election of right-wing populist Jair Bolsonaro, Cher called him a "pig" and "a politician from hell", before declaring that Bolsonaro should be "locked in prison for the rest of his life". 
In September 2020, Cher raised nearly $2 million for Joe Biden's presidential campaign at a virtual, LGBTQ-themed fundraiser.  In October, she traveled to Nevada and Arizona to campaign on behalf of Biden,  and released a cover version of "Happiness is Just a Thing Called Joe", a song conceived for the 1943 musical film Cabin in the Sky, with lyrics updated to be about Biden.  The same month, Cher posted messages on Twitter in support of Armenia and Artsakh regarding the Nagorno-Karabakh war. She stated, "We stand with the people of Armenia [and] urge our leaders in Washington to conduct the sustained and rigorous diplomacy necessary to bring peace to the Artsakh region." 
Rolling Stone 's Rob Sheffield stated how "there are no other careers remotely like hers, [particularly] in the history of pop music" and referred to Cher as "the one-woman embodiment of the whole gaudy story of pop music."  According to Goldmine magazine's Phill Marder, Cher "has been and remains today one of the Rock Era's most dominant figures".  He described her as the leader of an effort in the 1960s to "advance feminine rebellion in the rock world [and] the prototype of the female rock star, setting the standard for appearance, from her early hippie days to her later outlandish outfits, and her attitude—the perfect female punk long before punk even was a rock term."  Billboard 's Joe Lynch described Cher as "a woman who pioneered an androgynous musical identity in the mid '60s", and who by doing so "teed things up for people like Bowie and Patti Smith". 
Billboard 's Keith Caulfield wrote that "there's divas, and then there's Cher."  The New York Times ' Matthew Schneier stated, "[Cher] has earned her mononym. Her star power is such that she has spored an entire industry of imitators, both figurative and literal."  Dazed magazine's Shon Faye elaborates: "If Madonna and Lady Gaga and Kylie and Cyndi Lauper were playing football, Cher would be the stadium they played on, and the sun that shone down on them."  According to Jeff Miers from The Buffalo News, "Her music has changed with the times over the decades, rather than changing those times through groundbreaking work" however, he felt that subsequent female pop singers were heavily inspired by Cher's abilities to combine "showmanship with deep musicality . to make valid statements in a wide variety of trend-driven idioms . to ease effortlessly between pop subgenres [and] to shock without alienating her fans", as well as by her charismatic stage presence and the strong LGBT support among her fan base. 
Cher has repeatedly reinvented herself through various personas,  for which Professor Richard Aquila from Ball State University called her "the ultimate pop chameleon".  According to Entertainment Weekly 's Marc Snetiker, "Cher has floated through generation after generation, scooping up new fans, thrilling old ones, reinventing her own myth and glittering splendidly through it all."  Billboard magazine's Brooke Mazurek credited Cher as having "revolutionized the idea of what a pop star could visually accomplish, the way they could create multiple personas that live on and off-stage."  James Reed from The Boston Globe elaborates: "Along with David Bowie, she is one of the original chameleons in pop music, constantly in flux and challenging our perceptions of her[.]"  The New York Times declared Cher as the "Queen of the Comeback".  According to author Lucy O'Brien, "Cher adheres to the American Dream of reinvention of self: 'Getting old does not have to mean getting obsolete.'" 
Author Craig Crawford, in his book The Politics of Life: 25 Rules for Survival in a Brutal and Manipulative World (2007), describes Cher as "a model of flexible career management", and relates her career successes to a constant reshaping of her image according to the evolving trends of popular culture.  He further explains that she billed "each dramatic turnaround of style as another example of rebellion—an image that allowed her to make calculated changes while appearing to be consistent."  Author Grant McCracken stated, "The term 'reinvention' is now often used to talk about the careers of American celebrities. But in Cher's case, it is particularly apt [because she] is inclined to lock on to each new fashion wave [and] is swept violently down the diffusion stream and out of fashion. Only substantial re-creation permits her to return to stardom."  Her "integrity" and "perseverance" are highlighted in the Reaching Your Goals book series of illustrated inspirational stories for children, in which her life is detailed emphasizing the importance of self-actualization: "For years, Cher worked hard to become a successful singer. Then she worked hard to become an actress. Even when she needed money, she turned down movie roles that weren't right for her. Her goal has always been to be a good actress, not just a rich and famous one." 
Cher's "ability to forge an immensely successful and lengthy career as a woman in a male-dominated entertainment world"  has drawn attention from feminist critics.  According to author Diane Negra, Cher was presented in the beginning of her career as a product of male creativity  Cher remembers, "It was a time when girl singers were patted on the head for being good and told not to think".  However, her image eventually changed due to her "refusal of dependence on a man and the determination not only to forge a career (as an actor) on her own terms but to refuse the conventional role assigned to women over forty years old in an industry that fetishises youth", wrote author Yvonne Tasker.  She was featured in the 16th-anniversary edition of Ms. magazine as an "authentic feminist hero" and a 1980s role model for women: "Cher, the straightforward, tattooed, dyslexic single mother, the first Oscar winner to have entered into matrimony with a known heroin addict and to have admitted to being a fashion victim by choice, has finally landed in an era that's not afraid to applaud real women." 
Stephanie Brush from The New York Times wrote, following the telecast of Cher's Oscar win in 1988, that she "performs the function for women moviegoers that Jack Nicholson has always fulfilled for men. Free of the burden of ever having been America's sweetheart, she is the one who represents us [women] in our revenge fantasies, telling all the fatheads . exactly where they can go. You need to be more than beautiful to get away with this. You need to have been Cher for 40 years."  Cher's 1996 interview for Dateline NBC ' s Jane Pauley became a viral video in 2016 in it, Cher tells the story of her mother asking her to "settle down and marry a rich man," to which Cher replies, "Mom, I am a rich man."  Cher's "Mom, I am a rich man" quote was included in Taylor Swift's 2019 music video "You Need to Calm Down". Bustle magazine's Erica Kam commented, "[Cher's quote] puts a spin on typical gender norms . It would make sense, then, that Swift would want to follow Cher's example." 
Alec Mapa of The Advocate elaborates: "While the rest of us were sleeping, Cher's been out there for the last four decades living out every single one of our childhood fantasies . Cher embodies an unapologetic freedom and fearlessness that some of us can only aspire to."  Rolling Stone 's Jancee Dunn wrote, "Cher is the coolest woman who ever stood in shoes. Why? Because her motto is, 'I don't give a shit what you think, I'm going to wear this multicolored wig.' There are folks all over America who would, in their heart of hearts, love to date people half their age, get multiple tattoos and wear feathered headdresses. Cher does it for us."  Alexander Fury of The Independent wrote that Cher "represents a seemingly immortal, omnipotent, uni-monikered level of fame."  Bego stated: "No one in the history of show business has had a career of the magnitude and scope of Cher's. She has been a teenage pop star, a television hostess, a fashion magazine model, a rock star, a pop singer, a Broadway actress, an Academy Award-winning movie star, a disco sensation, and the subject of a mountain of press coverage."  Lynch wrote that "the world would certainly be different if she hadn't stayed so irrevocably Cher from the start." 
As a solo artist, Cher has sold 100 million records worldwide (in addition to 40 million as part of the duo Sonny & Cher), making her one of the best-selling music artists of all time.    She is one of the few artists to win three of the four major American entertainment awards (EGOT—Emmy, Grammy, Oscar, and Tony),  and one of five actor-singers to have had a US number-one single and won an acting Academy Award.  Her breakthrough single, Sonny & Cher's "I Got You Babe", is a Grammy Hall of Fame inductee  and was featured on Rolling Stone 's "500 Greatest Songs of All Time" list compiled in 2003.  Her 1971 single "Gypsys, Tramps & Thieves" was called "one of the 20th century's greatest songs" by Billboard magazine.  Her 1998 song "Believe" is the biggest-selling single of all time by a female artist in the UK.  It was voted the world's eighth favorite song in a poll conducted by BBC in 2003—the only American song to be named on the list.  In 1988, she became the first performer to receive an Academy Award for acting and a RIAA-certified gold album in the same year since the inception of gold awards in 1958. 
Cher is the only artist to have a number-one single on a Billboard chart in six consecutive decades, from the 1960s to the 2010s.  She has held US Billboard Hot 100 number-one singles over the longest period of time in history: 33 years, seven months and three weeks between "I Got You Babe", which topped the chart for the first time on August 14, 1965, and "Believe", whose last week at number one was April 3, 1999.  With "Believe", she became the oldest female artist to have a US number-one song in the rock era, at the age of 52.  Billboard ranked her at number 43 on their "Greatest Hot 100 Artists of All Time" list.  In 2014, the magazine listed her as the 23rd highest-grossing touring act since 1990, with total earned revenue of $351.6 million and 4.5 million attendance at her shows. 
Cher has received numerous honorary awards, including the 1985 Woman of the Year Award by the Hasty Pudding Theatricals society at Harvard University,  the Vanguard Award at the 1998 GLAAD Media Awards,  the Legend Award at the 1999 World Music Awards,  a special award for influence on fashion at the 1999 CFDA Fashion Awards,  the Lucy Award for Innovation in Television at the 2000 Women in Film Awards,  the Artist Achievement Award at the 2002 Billboard Music Awards,  the Lifetime Achievement Award at the 2010 Glamour Awards,  the Legend Award at the 2013 Attitude Awards,  the Award of Inspiration at the 2015 amfAR Gala,  the Icon Award at the 2017 Billboard Music Awards,  the 2018 Kennedy Center Honor,  the Ambassador for the Arts Award at the 2019 Chita Rivera Awards for Dance and Choreography,  and the 2020 Spirit of Katharine Hepburn Award.  In 2010, Cher received the honor of placing her handprints and footprints in cement in the courtyard in front of Grauman's Chinese Theatre in Hollywood.  Her name is on a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame as part of the duo Sonny & Cher.  She had also been selected for the honour as a solo artist in 1983, but forfeited her opportunity by declining to schedule the mandatory personal appearance. 
In 2003, Cher appeared at number 41 on VH1's list of "The 200 Greatest Pop Culture Icons", which recognizes "the folks that have significantly inspired and impacted American society".  She was ranked 31st on VH1's list of "The 100 Greatest Women in Music" for the period 1992–2012.  Esquire magazine placed her at number 44 on their list of "The 75 Greatest Women of All Time".  She was featured on the "100 Greatest Movie Stars of our Time" list compiled by People.  In a 2001 poll, Biography magazine ranked her as their third favorite leading actress of all time, behind Audrey Hepburn and Katharine Hepburn. 
Anno 1960 - Recipes
The windmill De Kat was originally built in 1781.
It is an octagonal mill with a rotating cap and external gallery. Since its restoration and partial rebuild in 1960 it has been fitted out to grind colouring materials.
The mill is located on the River Zaan between the windmills De Zoeker and De Poelenburg, near the Zaanse Schans, where it makes a dominant contribution to the landscape.
This windmill was later converted to an oil mill, probably just before 1689 since an insurance contract mentioning the mill exists, dated 13 July 1689. On 27 November 1782 the mill was lost to a fire but was rebuilt.
The mill, which had been the property of the Honig family since 1772, was sold in 1904 to the firm Vis Pz., which demolished it to the gallery level, using the ground level and the shed to store and dry chalk. In 1960 an octagonal top belonging to the Duinjager, located elsewhere in Zaandam, was mounted on the ground-level buildings.
The Duinjager must have been built around 1696 in the Oostzijderveld since its permit to use the wind dates from 1 August 1696, issued to Adam Jansz. Duyn, which would seem to explain the mill’s name. Originally used to grind snuff, the mill was soon refitted as a colour mill. It was lost to fire on 17 June 1781, but was rebuilt.
Around 1900 the mill was used to grind chalk and later coal. The powdered coal was sieved and sent off to the iron foundries. The mill was equipped with a Diesel engine before the Second World War as an auxiliary motor to keep the mill going. The mill’s working parts at that time consisted of two pairs of horizontal millstones and five pairs of edge runner stones. The horizontal stones were in the first loft, while 4 of the 5 edge runners were located on the ground floor under the octagon. The fifth edge runner was in the west shed, driven from the mill via a long shaft. One of the horizontal pairs of millstones was later set up downstairs. The mill continued to work under wind power until March 1947. The planned rebuilding of the Oostzijderveld meant that the mill could not remain where it was.
The mill was demolished in 1959. The following saw its octagonal upper storey moved onto the ground-floor buildings of De Kat in Zaandam, since when the windmill has been doing its work quite regularly.
Working women tended to follow more traditional career paths 50 years ago
There was a definite hierarchy in the work force 50 years ago. Magazines from the time, noted Flashbak, were brimming with job ads for women, but they were typically "for low-wage, low-skill positions." Being a pilot was considered a man's career, but women could serve passengers on a plane as a stewardess — "Airlines need women!" read one ad from the time. Modeling, nursing, and secretarial work were also careers that typically recruited women, and women in such ads were often young and conventionally attractive.
While women could enter other fields, very few did. Statistics from the American Medical Association's Physician Masterfile (via Pinnacle Health Group) show that out of the 334,028 physicians in the U.S. in 1970, just 25,401 were women, while Law Crossing noted that women made up just 4 percent of legal practitioners.
This was largely because women were still expected to focus on raising a family. As economist Janet Yellen wrote in an essay for Brookings, "most women still expected to have short careers, and women were still largely viewed as secondary earners whose husbands' careers came first." Women who prioritized a career, then, often did not appeal to traditional-minded men.